The present study was conducted with the purpose of determining the relationship between management style of physical education responsibilities with job satisfaction of sport teachers and determination of the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership of physical education authorities with job satisfaction of sport instructors.
After recognition of relationships between management style and leadership with job satisfaction, a step is taken towards recognition of effective factors for improvement of organization; therefore, such research is considered as optimized and appropriate solutions for recognition of the management and organization’s problems and difficulties, for presenting guidance. This study is based on the opinions of 181 male and female physical education teachers from five districts of the education and instruction department of Esfahan, in which the type of management style of physical education authorities of all five districts of education and instruction of Esfahan and job-satisfaction of the teacher were evaluated through two questionnaires, the confidentiality of which was computed via Cronbach’s alpha-coefficient.
Results of the study showed that the relationship between management style and leadership of physical education authorities and sport teachers’ jobsatisfaction with P<0.01 level has been positive and significant. Also, the relationship between transformational and transactional management style of physical education authorities and job-satisfaction of teachers with p<0.01 level has been positive and significant too. Amongst other results of this study with regard to e.g. sex, age, marital status, field of education, educational degree, and previous work-record of P.E teachers and their jobsatisfaction, the relationship for those with p<0.01 level has not been significant.
KEYWORDS management style, job satisfaction, PE teachers
There is no doubt that management is considered as the engine of development and at any time it is the most important factor of progress, welfare and independence of nations. Development however, is dependent on group work and organization.
In management and organizational behavior, organizational leadership alongside programming, organization and control is considered as one of the necessary duties of the director (Robins 1995, pp. 4 & 5).
In the holy Quran, leadership and Imamate or management and guidance have been described as growth, and in the last degree power of leadership is considered as equal to growth – that is when an individual intends to administer others, i.e. when the issue of growth is used to the meaning of administering other people, we consider it as equivalent to management and leadership (Motahari 1993, pp. 317).
Improvement of organizations is one of the very expanded processes in which factors such as management style and job satisfaction are of the utmost importance.
Talking of organizations' and institutions' productivity, without paying attention to optimized use of employees’ aptitudes, producing motivation, directing them toward the goals of the institution, and providing a background for appearance of creativity and innovation in them will be an inappropriate claim.
With regard to augmentation of requirements in education and instruction and decrease of resources, in order to prevent a fall in quality of this organ with a definitive role in the future of Iran, education authorities strongly believe that improvement of management and performance of educational directors is one of the principal and definitive factors of success in improvement and even reform of the education and instruction system of the country, since efficient and informed educational managers can, employing their inherent capabilities, specialised knowledge and professional experience, achieve the educational and instructional objectives through expanding fewer resources and with better, more effective and more efficient quality.
Scientists and researchers have proposed different perspectives on the best ways or styles of leadership and guidance, the aim of all of which has been to increase the productivity of the sovereign organization.
Employees, an inseparable part of any organization, have different perceptions, opinions, and even diverse needs. Their satisfaction of the directorship’s type of operation, physical working circumstances, etc, lead to job-satisfaction among employees. No doubt, satisfaction of employees will increase productivity and lead to their augmented participation in the trend of performing their assignments.
The findings of this research can be used as a guide and an indicator for selecting management style and a suitable leadership for physical education directors and responsibility of departments of education and instruction as well as other similar institutions in Iran.
Any social organization, in order to achieve its planned goals and with regard to its structure, requires a sort of leadership and management.
Any organization without a leader is merely an scattered collection of individuals and organs. Leadership is the process of motivating and helping others to work happily in order to achieve the objectives. Therefore, the human factor unifies the groups and individuals and motivates them to achieve the goals.
Today, leadership is considered as one of the most profound present problems of management. And just now, in all organizations, it is quite clear that their continuing existence depends on the existence of human beings, and so if we can penetrate the minds of these incognito beings and succeed in making them sympathetic to us, we will be able to achieve our group and organization objectives. Now , the first section is devoted to presentation of concepts and subjects relevant to leadership and study of the trend of management and leadership theories, while the second section covers the subject of job satisfaction and its relevant theories.
Theoretical background to the subject
In this section, the title relevant to the subject of the research will be studied.
Organization and management.
The present society is an organizational society. A child is born; it grows-up, becomes educated, and tries to engage in guild organizations, or commerce and administrative institutions and from the very beginning has been, and still is, concerned with organization. Today, all types of services and products of the society are provided by different organizations. The importance of studying organization lies in the fact that well-organized institutions are more efficient and that the specialists in such institutions are more satisfied. When human beings work together, even if this working together has not been planned in anticipation, there form models of social interaction, ideas and common orientations called social organization (Allagheband 1996, pp. 4).
Individuals come together in organizations to perform, in cooperation and with the assistance of each other, work and activities that individually are not able to be performed; formal organization is the tool required to perform a main part of such activities. Each formed organization enjoys such specifications as precise determination of activities’ structure, sustenance and persistence of the organization, growth and dynamism of the organization (Herbert, Hieks, and Gulled 1990, pp. 62). Each formed organization is a mechanism or an instrument for achieving special objectives of the society or parts of its objectives; the education and instruction system is an extensive and vastly formed organization which assures achievement of very important objectives for the society (Allagheband 1993, pp 15).
In an analysis of formal organizations Parsons (1958) has categorized their duties and responsibilities as a hierarchy of three institutional (socio-cultural) managerial, and technical systems of organization; practical education and instruction processes or instruction and teaching are considered as technical duties and responsibilities. All complicated actions and activities of the technical level units are performed under supervision and guidance of a higher level called the administrative level or system. On the one side, the administrative level is responsible for administering the interval affairs of the educational system organization, and on the other side it functions as a mediator between the organization and the society. The organizational units responsible for administrative assignments include: all executive and headquarter units administering education and instruction affairs.
At this level, educational management completely resembles other organizations and its duties are the same general functions of general management. Just as the technical system of the organization is guided and controlled by the managerial level, in the same way the managerial level, in turn, is directed and controlled by the institutional or socio-cultural level. Duties and responsibilities of the institutional level include: orienting and determining philosophy and objectives of education and instruction, including beliefs, values and norms to the society, providing financial support, determining general norms of management etc. (Allagheband 1993, pp. 15, 16, 17).
Once the formal structure is established, an informal organization, natural in its framework, is formed. An informal organization is the result of continuous social interaction and modifies, strengthens and/or expands the formal structure. One of the main distinctions found between formal and informal organizations is the private nature of informal organizations compared to the non-private nature of the formal organizations. An informal organization is formed when being in charge of a specified position in the organization leads to establishing social interactions with others (Rezaiyan 1990, pp 136).
Hersey and Blanchard have defined management as working with individuals and through individuals and groups in order to achieve organizational goals. According to this definition, management is exercised in all organizations, whether commercial, educational, political, in hospitals or even in the family (Allagheband 1996, pp. 13).
“Management is a collection of processes through which material and human resources required to achieve objectives are provided and in this way influence on behavior of employees becomes effective” (Pardakhtchi 1998, pp. 75).
According to Stoner (1983, pp. 8) management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, controlling efforts of organizations’ members, and using all resources of the organization in order to achieve specified organizational objectives.
Philipo suggests that management is coordinating all resources through processes of planning and controlling operations of the organization so that one can achieve objectives effectively and economically. Based on this definition, management is a process whose most important functions are coordinating, planning and controlling (Allagheban 1999, pp. 25).
Duties of managers (directors)
According to Henry Fayol all managers have five duties or tasks to perform: plan, organize, lead, coordinate and control.
Theories of transformational and transactional (functional) styles of management: based on the latest investigation conducted on the subject of management and leadership styles, leaders are categorized as transactional and transformational. Most leadership theories like those of the Ohio state investigation, fidler, into the trend of goals and participation in management emphasise transactional leaders. Such leaders guide their followers or motivate them to achieve the objectives of the organization. On the other side, those who are transformational inspire their followers, boosting their morale and guiding them in a direction that would provide the benefits of the organization (Robins 1998, pp. 687).
In fact such transformational leaders and managers can influence their subordinates to function with very high morale and leave very deep effects on the organization.
Transformational managers pay special attention to needs, progress and promotion of their subordinates and increase their knowledge and can lead them in such a way that they view the old problems from newer viewpoints. Being motivated and inspired, individuals will be persuaded to work heartily and do not refrain from any effort to provide with the needs of and achieve the goals of the organization (Bahrololum 1999, pp. 49, 50).
Two factors have caused the charismatic or transformational leaders (who cause transformation in others) to be considered. First, many of the big companies including telephone and telegraph companies of the USA, IBM and General Motors have recently enforced vast programs of transformation to be accomplished in short periods of time. Such transformations need leaders who can enforce these extensive programs. Second, many feel that paying too much attention to specifications, behavior and circumstances and opportunities have led to the setting in the leadership theory that the subject of “Leadership” has been ignored. Existence of leaders e.g. in the US army such as General Doglass set us thinking that there are exceptional leaders with peculiar characteristics; however, such cases cannot be explained by the existing theories (Stoner and Freeman 1996, pp. 1023).
Conditional rewards: Based on contracts, the amount of reward depends on performance; attention is paid to performance and high rewards are paid for the best performances. Management by exception (active): care is taken that work is performed in accordance with standards and regulations, and in the event of breaches, rectification actions will be considered. Management by exception (inactive): Interference is restricted to times when standards are not observed.
Anarchy: Nobody feels any responsibility, no decisions are taken.
Peculiarities of transformational managers and leaders.
Personal attraction: They create an interesting picture of themselves in the minds of others and pretend to perform important assignments and inspire people to respect them heartily, be proud of them and trust them.
Inspiring: They promise much and generate hope, and in order to emphasise and attain (paid) attention to some affairs, hints and allusions are used and they simply say they talk of big objectives and goals.
Perception: This factor leads to increased knowledge and insight of the followers: they demand self-orientation and recommend precision in solving problems.
Personal considerations: They personally investigate the problems and pay special attention to each of the employees and subordinates. As an instructor they provide necessary recommendations. Based on evidence, those leaders who produce transformations in individuals, compared with transactional leaders, are privileged and more successful. The results of investigations conducted in this field suggest that transformation leaders and managers, compared with transactional leaders and managers, cause the rate of displacement of individuals to decrease, and production or output augments and job satisfaction of employees to increase (Robins 1998, pp. 687).
Several studies conducted on army commanders and military authorities of the USA, Canada and Germany have shown that principally the transformational leaders and managers are more successful than transactional managers and leaders and that they have been more comprehensive and effective.
In the company Federal Express, followers and subordinates regarded transformational leaders and managers as leaders with an excellent performance who motivate and cause further progress of their subordinates. The findings of this study performed in this field suggested that transformational managers and leaders in comparison with transactional leaders and managers increase job satisfaction of employees (Robins 1998, pp. 687).
According to Robins (1991) transformational managers are able to promote interests of employees towards advancement of goals and the mission of the organization (Bahrololum 1999, pp. 78).
Transactional managers deal with their followers by paying money, awarding prizes or other rewards or imposing punishment in exchange for their work. Transactional managers first fully comprehend the needs of their followers, then help to make clear what their followers should do. The transformational style of management provokes a strong sense of closeness with manager and influences the follower to perform their duties at a level far beyond their personal interests and what is expected of them (Rosenbach, Sashkin and Harburg 1996, pp. 4, 5).
The transformational style of management leads to maximal potentials in the same direction as group objectives and high-level needs (Doherty and Danylchuck 1996, pp. 292). Marshal Sashkin’s Theory of Provident Management (1995): this style of management, distinguishes charisma from the transformational style of management. This theory is a new model of transformational style of management.
Theories of motivation in connection with job satisfaction
Theory of Hierarchy of Needs: this theory was presented by Maslow. Maslow considers human needs as a hierarchy that according to priority and importance is arranged from the lowest to the highest level. Such needs exist in a categorized form in every human being and include:
- Physiological needs;
- Safety needs;
- Love (social) needs;
- Esteem needs;
- Self-actualization (Robins 1997, pp. 73).
In the organization, as mentioned before, needs are satisfied as payment of salaries and extra pay and welfare facilities such as providing job security and support regulations, formal and informal associations in the workplace, considering the esteem of individuals and their jobs at different levels of the organization and providing possibilities for updating individuals’ potential efficiencies. Satisfaction of such needs will produce a motivation for the individual to work for the organization.
Theory X and theory Y
McGregor presented two distinct viewpoints of man: a principally negative viewpoint which he called X theory, and a positive point of view which he called Y theory.
The subject of this study is included in the domain of organizational behavior. To evaluate the attitude of teachers and determine their job-satisfaction and the style of leadership and management of managers, the necessary information was gathered through standard questionnaires. Subsequently, through statistical computations, relationships between management style and leadership and job satisfaction of teachers have been evaluated.
The details of study procedure, statistical society, measurement tools, information collection procedure, and statistical methods have been provided.
Correlation studies include all investigations in which it is attempted, using correlation coefficient, to discover or determine relationships between different variables. The objective of correlation research procedure is to study the domain of variations of one or more variables with regard to limits of variations of one or some other variables. In the field of cause and effect, correlation research procedure has some limitations. This method is very useful for research in educational fields and other disciplines of behavioral sciences. Its main advantage is that it allows the researcher to assess many variables and synchronously compute their interval correlation. The correlation method is used for two main purposes:
- Discovering correlation between variables;
- Predicting one variable with regard to one or some other variables (Dellavar 1997, pp. 187, 189, 190).
The statistical population includes male and female P.E teachers at high school level in all five education and instruction districts of Esfahan. The total number of teachers, based on the latest statistics provided by General Bureau of Education and Instruction of Esfahan Province, amounts to 217 individuals summarized in table 1.
Table 1. Distribution of P.E teachers in five educational districts of Esfahan according to gender
Based on information provided by this table, it can be seen that from a total of 217 P.E teachers working at high school level in five educational districts of Esfahan, 99 were male and 118 were female.
In this study, two standard questionnaires were used to assess perceptions. The first, leadership profile (TLP) includes 50 questions, 40 regarding transformational leadership and 10 (nos 1, 2, 8, 12, 18, 19, 22, 31, 32, and 50 respectively) concerning transactional leadership. This questionnaire has been compiled and standardized by Marshal Sashkin I 1996. Another questionnaire, the jobsatisfaction questionnaire or job-feeling scale (JFS) was compiled in 1991 by Vesioki and Chrome and standardized. The questionnaire included 41 questions, whereby in this study the researcher, following advice, has omitted three repeated questions and therefore includes only 38 questions.
Along with these two questionnaires, a personal data questionnaire has been included as well. The reliability coefficient shows the extent to which the instrument assesses the stable testing characteristics or variable characteristics. To compute the reliability coefficient of the instrument, different procedures including Cronbach’s alpha method are employed.
This procedure is used to compute internal coordination of the instrument including questionnaires or tests which measure different characteristics (Bazargan 1997, pp. 166-170). The reliability assessment of questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha procedure was conducted via computer through which the reliability of 50 questions regarding the questionnaire on leadership and management style (alpha=0.97) was obtained. For 38 questions relevant to indicators of job satisfaction in the questionnaire the amount of alpha=0.88 was obtained, so that a high reliability can be assumed for the questionnaires.
Cronbach’s alpha amounts relevant to such indicators as type of work, management, colleagues, promotions, salary and extra pay were respectively as follows: Alpha=0.83, Alpha=0.87, Alpha=0.88, Alpha=0.85, Alpha=0.82.
It is worth mentioning that both questionnaires were arranged as closed replies and at the bottom of the leadership style questionnaire, a part was set aside for further comments by respondents. The assessment scale selected for the leadership style questionnaire was the Likert five value scale.
Data collection method
During a period of three weeks, beginning 21st April 2001 all questionnaires were distributed to high schools and sport facilities by the researcher, who to introduce himself presented his identity card; and during the following weeks, these questionnaires were collected. From a total of 217 questionnaires distributed amongst teachers, 185 questionnaires were returned, of which 4 questionnaires, due to imperfection, were not considered in statistical computations. Therefore, the total number of questionnaires considered in computations amounted to 181.
In this research, at the level of descriptive statistics, tables, frequency distribution, drawing figures, means, percentage and standard deviations have been employed at inferential statistics’ level, the following statistical tests were used:
Correlation coefficient: A statistical indicator shows the amount and extent of the relation between variables, depicting such relationships quantitatively.
The numerical indictor “one” is the highest coefficient that can be obtained for correlation which shows complete correlation between the studied variables. Positive and complete correlation (r=+1) indicates direct correlation between variables. Correlation coefficient “-1” shows a completely negative correlation. This means there is a converse correlation between the two variables. Whenever there is no correlation between the variables, the correlation coefficient equals zero “0” . Correlation coefficient determines the intensity and direction of correlation between the two variables (Dellavar 1996, pp. 210, 219).
T-test with two independent groups: the purpose of the T-test in studying two independent means is to help the researcher in his decisions. The researcher should decide whether the observed discrepancy between two means is the result of chance (a random result) or shows a genuine discrepancy between the two populations.
Summary of the Research
Productivity in the organization needs provision of different conditions, the most important of which is the human factor.
The success of each organization in fulfilling predetermined objectives depends on how the manager is employing management and effective leadership styles. In fact, management and leadership style is a facilitating factor which motivates the employees, and hence directly and indirectly affects job satisfaction. This led the researcher to study the transformational and transactional styles of management and leadership amongst the physical education teachers of Esfahan. Since this type of leadership, from the viewpoints of Sashkin, Chelladurai and Robins, can lead to beneficial improvements and changes in the organization and is therefore capable of motivating employees to achieve the intended objectives of the organization, in this research project it was intended to assess the relationship between management style and job-satisfaction.
The present study includes a main hypothesis and eight secondary hypotheses. The first one is to determine whether or not there was a significant relationship between management style of physical education authorities and job-satisfaction of physical education teachers. In its secondary hypotheses the relationships between transformational and transactional styles of management and leadership with job-satisfaction and the relationships between gender, age, and post-work record and job-satisfaction will be evaluated respectively.
Method of research is scanning descriptive
In this study, opinions of male and female sport teachers at high-school level have been investigated in connection with their job-satisfaction, and their opinion on type of management and leadership of the physical education authorities of their district. The research’s statistical population includes male and female sport teachers of five Education and Instruction Districts of Esfahan at highschool level, numbering 217 teachers, among whom the researcher only succeeded in collecting data from and evaluating 181 individuals.
The instrument comprises two standardized questionnaires, amongst which the questionnaire regarding style of management and leadership was that of Sashkin, containing 50 questions, 40 of which regarded transformational style of management and 10 of which regarded the transactional type of management. The second questionnaire, that of Vesioki and Chrome, included 38 questions on components of type of work, management, colleagues, promotions and advancement and salary and extra pay. Such questionnaires, with full information on how to complete them, were distributed among male and female sport teachers at high-school level and collected after a set period of time. Then the statistical computations were performed, employing statistical tests of Pearson’s correlation coefficient, T-test, F-test and Tucky-test. The following results were obtained:
- The correlation coefficient between job-satisfaction and management was 0.44, which is significant i.e. those who have given higher scores to the style of management and leadership of their district have been enjoying a higher job-satisfaction.
- Correlation coefficient between job-satisfaction and transactional management was 0.34, which is significant at p 2.01 level.
- Correlation coefficient between transformational style of management and job-satisfaction was 0.46, which is significant at p 2.01 level.
- From the viewpoint of male and female P.E teachers, in connection with type of management of physical education authorities no difference is seen.
- The lowest score of transactional type of management was recorded in District 4 of Education and Instruction and the highest level of transactional type of management belonged to District 3 of E.I.
- The lowest score of transformational type of management belonged to District 3 of E.I and the highest level was observed in District 5 of Education and Institution.
- No relationship was found between gender and job-satisfaction of P.E teachers.
- No relationship was found between job-satisfaction of P.E teachers and their educational degree.
- No relationship was found between marital status and job-satisfaction of P.E teachers.
- A relationship was found between job-satisfaction of P.E teachers and their record of service.
- A relationship was found between job-satisfaction of P.E teachers and their age groups.
- No relationship was found between job-satisfaction of P.E teachers and different disciplines.
- Type of management of females who play the role of transforming information, are mostly of the transactional type of management and leadership.
Results of comparing this research with findings of research from inside and outside Iran showed that:
- The present study corresponds with those of Nichel, Botshekan and Bahrololum in connection with the relationship between the level of management and leadership and job-satisfaction.
- The findings of the present study with regard to the first hypothesis in connection with determining the relationship between level of transformational management and job satisfaction correspond with those of Boss and Heater, Frust and Howel, Howel and Heagins, Dorthy and Daniel Chuck Medli and Lavocelli and Bahrololum, while they do not correspond to the results obtained by Glimaro, Beacher and Riditer, Ellias and Wiz.
- As regards the relationship between the fields of education, gender, marital status and jobsatisfaction, our results correspond to those of Bahrololum: however, our findings, as regards the relationship between job satisfaction and record of service, do not correspond to those of Bahrololum.
- In the present study, in connection with the relationship between age and job satisfaction, these results correspond to those of Aslankhani: however, they do not correspond to the findings of Noorbakhash and Bahrololum.
- In connection with the relationship between educational degree and job-satisfaction, these findings do not correspond to those of Amirtash, Aslankhani and Bahrololum.
Discussion and conclusion
Principal hypothesis: there is a significant relationship between management style of physical education authorities and job satisfaction of P.E Teachers.
Based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient, these findings were significant at p=0.01 and job satisfaction was 0.44, therefore the above hypothesis is confirmed. Thus those respondents who have given a higher score to the leadership and management style of the district’s manager are enjoying a higher level of job-satisfaction.
Based on the intra-structure of this study’s hypothesis, amongst the factors that could affect management and leadership style and job satisfaction, perceptions and knowledge of sub-ordinates, rules and regulations, awareness of managers of theories and contexts of leadership and their potentialities, service record, preparedness of background for promotion, reward and appreciation, and paying attention to human relationships etc. can be mentioned.
The findings of this study confirm Marshal Sashkin’s (1995) theory that management style requires both transformational and transactional types. Meanwhile, these results correspond to those of Bahrololum (1999), therefore it can probably be shown that by employing a rational style of management, along with appropriate and suitable rewards (transformational style of management) and by employing appropriate communicational means, reciprocal esteem, attention to subordinates, selfconfidence and providing assurance (transformational style of management), one can provide a basis for job-satisfaction in the organization.
The first hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between the transformational management style of physical education authorities and job satisfaction of P.E teachers. Based on results, the correlation coefficient between the transformational style of management and job satisfaction of P.E teachers equals 0.45, which is significant at the level of p=0.01. Therefore the above hypothesis is confirmed.
Thus those who have given a higher score to the transformational style of management and leadership, enjoy a higher level of job-satisfaction.
The important point is that the management style of a manager is a facilitating and motivating factor which either directly or indirectly affects their job-satisfaction. Since managers following the transformational style of management can affect thoughts, feelings, and perceptions of their subordinates, and cause them to be satisfied with their performance, thus, following this style of management by managers, this will probably affect the level of correlation between the two variables of management style and job-satisfaction.
Results of this hypothesis correspond with findings of Bass and Heater (1988), Frust and Howel (1989), Howel and Higins (1989), Dorthy and Daniel Chuck on sport instructors of universities, Medli and Larochelli (1999) on hospital nurses and Bahrololum (1999) on experts of the Physical Education Organization. However, they do not correspond to findings of the studies by Guilmar, Beacher and Riditer (2000) and Wallas and Witz (1995) conducted on sport teams of universities and sport organizations at Canadian universities.
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