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01 Августа 2010 Журнал "World Journal of Sport Sciences"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Ramadan Adel Mohamed

The Effect of a Proposed Program of Modified Tae Bo Exercises on the Level of Some Physical Fitness, Physiological and Skillful Elements of Basketball Players

Abstract: The research aimed to design a proposed training program of modified Tae Bo exercises to be performed in the motor course of the skillful performance of basketball players using the music. That is to introduce an element of fun and excitement during the performance, which goes beyond the traditional methods of training that give rise to boredom and fatigue. Studies dealt with Tae Bo exercises have shown their contribution to the development of physical elements such as strength, flexibility, agility, speed and endurance in addition to the physiological efficiency and increase of oxygen consumption. This prompted both researchers to address this research study in an attempt to identify the effect of modified Tae Bo exercises on some physical fitness, physiological and skillful elements of basketball players. The researchers used the experimental method with the experimental design for two groups, one experimental and the other control of 10 players each. The researchers applied the basic experiment for 12 weeks by three training units a week. The results showed that the modified Tae Bo exercises had a positive effect on the special elements of physical fitness and physiological and skillful variables under discussion.

Key words: Modified Tae Bo exercises • Physical fitness • Physiological variables • Attack skills

INTRODUCTION

Basketball is characterized by high intensity, especially after shortening the time of the attack to 24 seconds, as speed of performance increased. And thus the players are required to perform with high efficiency during the games and delay the onset of fatigue. Tae Bo exercises are of the modern training means that delay the onset of fatigue, lead to the upgrading of physical level and make the process of adaptation to the players. Blanks [1], the first innovator of the Tae Bo exercises, indicated that Tae Bo exercise program is an integrated program of fitness and physiological efficiency. It is also characterized by continuity in performance without feeling bored or tired; the practitioners feel happiness during the performance with music. It works to improve strength, flexibility, endurance, agility and increased consumption of oxygen and therefore, aerobic capacity.

In a study for Bojana et al. [2], a new Tae Bo aerobics model was experimented as a part of the main and additional bodies of the physical education and sport syllabus of the secondary schools. They examined the effectiveness of the new Tae Bo model on the 11-15 year olds on the basis of tests, specific criteria and indexes. The most important results were that the physical ability of the participants improved and interest; motivation and aspiration for independent training and self-improvement through physical education and sport increased.

• According to the researchers through a literature review, Tae Bo exercises (A set of exercises consists of a mixture of boxing and karate movements and is performed smoothly by jumping with feet and accompanied by music for the performance of those exercises ) were not addressed with study in the team games, so the researchers addressed the research with the study in order to design a training program of modified Tae Bo exercises (A set of innovative exercises by the researchers derived from basic Tae Bo exercises. They consist of a combination of movements that take the form of skillful performance of basketball to the working muscles in performance with jump and music accompanies these exercises) performed in the motor course of the skillful performance of basketball players using the music in order to overcome the traditional methods of training that give rise to boredom and fatigue in addition to what demonstrated in studies of Tae Bo exercises contributions to the development of physical attributes and physiological efficiency and delay the onset of fatigue among the players. This prompted the researchers to develop a program of Tae Bo exercises in a modified way to suit the skills of basketball and in a codified way characterized by diversity and innovation.

The Research Aims To:

• Design a program of modified Tae Bo exercises for basketball players.

• Identify the effect of the modified Tae Bo exercises program on some special elements of the fitness of the basketball players (ability, cardiovascular endurance, speed and agility), some physiological variables (aerobic capacity, anaerobic ability and v ital capacity) and some of the offensive skills (dribbling, shooting and passing).

The Research Hypotheses:

• There would be significant differences between pre and post measurements in some special physical, physiological and skillful variables under discussion for the control group in favor of post-measurement.

• There would be significant differences between pre and post measurements in some special physical, physiological and skillful variables under discussion for the experimental group in favor of post-measurement.

• There would be significant differences between control and experimental groups in the post-measurement in some special physical, physiological and skillful characteristics under discussion in favor of the experimental group.

In a study by Lysenko [3], it has been assumed that some specific characteristics are related to efficient competitive activity and are manifestations of endurance: power of cardiorespiratory system (CRS), economy, mobility, stability and ability to realize the potential of the system for specific workload. The results showed that basketball players of various game functions have different levels of functional fitness and components of aerobic capacities.

Hoffman et al. [4] conducted a study on strength, speed and endurance changes during the course of a division I basketball season.

Boatwright and Todd [5] did a study to identify the effect of use of interval training during the preparation period for the basketball players.

Hassan [6] did a study to identify the effect of a proposed training program for the setup on the ability of aerobic and anaerobic work for football beginners.

Timmons [7] conducted a study aiming to compare the effects of two training programs to increase the vertical jump, the first with deep jump and the second by the plyometric exercises.

Mousa [8] also conducted a study to identify the effect of a Tae Bo exercise program on the activity of the thyroid gland and basal metabolic rate and some elements of motor fitness and skillful level to perform some jumps. A study of Ramadan [9] was to identify the effect of the development of anaerobic and aerobic work on some physical attributes and basic skills of basketball for beginners of 14-16 years.

Shams El-Din [10] studied the effect of a proposed program of Tae Bo exercises to improve some elements of physiological fitness and the level of performance in modern dance.

Yusuf [11] also studied the impact of Tae Bo exercises on the activity of the thyroid gland and some of the physical elements and their relationship to the level of athletic performance of fencing.

Abou-Taleb [12] conducted a study to compare among some of the methods of training doses combinations and its effect on the level of physical performance and skills of basketball players.

Researchers benefited from the related studies in determining the research methodology and experimental design and identify variables of the training program and the tests used in research and statistical treatments. It also turned out that Tae Bo exercises were not used in the team games in the Arabic and foreign studies; they were, therefore, dealt with the study by the researchers.

Procedures: The researchers used the experimental method using the experimental design for two groups, experimental and control. The research sample was intentionally selected from the players of Suez Canal University team for the year 2009 - 2010. It was 20 players divided into two groups with 10 players each.

The researchers conducted homogeneity and equality among the members of the research sample as the values of the skew coefficient limited between -0.01 and 2.38, which indicates the homogeneity of the sample; while for equality, the tabular Mann-Whitney value limited between 29 and 47.5, which is less than the tabular Mann-Whitney value 23, which indicates the equality of the sample in all variables.

The researchers surveyed the specialized scientific references in basketball, sports training, related studies and the Internet in order to identify the special physical attributes of basketball, physical, physiological and skillful tests in question and also to identify variables of the training program.

The researchers conducted an exploratoiy study to determine how the modified Tae Bo exercises suitable for the research sample, adjust the variables and components of the training load and codifying the modified Tae Bo exercises.

The researchers conduct the scientific coefficients of the tests used in research before doing the pre and post-measurement through a coefficient of consistency and reliability of the tests in question; as the reliability coefficient limited between 0.7 and 0.99, which shows the reliability of all the tests in question. As for the consistency, the values of the correlation coefficient limited between 0.69 and 0.98, indicating the consistency of all the tests under discussion.

The Pre-measurement: The researchers applied the pre-measure from 28/6/2009 to 30/6/2009 on the experimental and control groups through carrying out the physical, physiological and skillful tests under discussion as follows:

Physical Tests:

• The Shuttle Run (55m x 5 times) was used as a measure of muscular endurance [13].

• The 30m Sprint (one time) was used to measure speed [14].

• The Vertical jump (3 times) was used to measure the muscular ability [13].

• The Zigzag Run (one time) was used to measure agility [15].

Skillful Tests:

• Test of the speed of dribbling around a group of barriers to measure the speed of a dribbling [14].

• Test shooting from under the basket in 30 sec to measure the speed and follow-up of shooting [14].

• Test of Speed and Accuracy of Passing [16].

Physiological Tests:

• The Ruffier Test was used to measure the physical capacity and maximal oxygen uptake (V02max) as a measure for aerobic work [17].

• Test of the bicycle argometer to measure the anaerobic work [13].

• Test of Vital Capacity (VC) to assess the lungs efficacy of inspiratoiy and expiratory maximums [15].

The researchers prepared the program of modified Tae Bo exercises after reviewing the specialized scientific literature, where the program contains a set of Tae Bo exercises serving the aerobic and anaerobic work performed in the motor course of the skillful performance using music [16].

Time of performance, number of the repetition times and intensity were determined through the use of equalizing rationing the training load using the pulse [12,18].

The proposed training program was applied to the experimental group by three training units per week for 12 weeks from 1/7/2009 to 21/9/2009.

It was taken into account when performing aerobic exercises using rhythmic movements (walking, running in place, jump, hop and movements of the arms) in intensity not less than 60% of the maximum pulse rate, but for the anaerobic exercises, they must take the form of performance during the competition for the working muscles in basketball and in intensity ranging between 80% - 90% of the maximum intensity within 1 to 2 minutes [19-22].

The method of training by ongoing and interval load with low-intensity to develop the aerobic work and method of high-intensity, interval training to develop the anaerobic work as it leads to the development of the ability of muscles to adapt to the physical effort exerted and delay the onset of fatigue [1,22].

For the degree of the weekly load, the researchers followed the formation of 1: 2, i.e. day with medium load and two days with high or maximum load [23].

The training load was upgraded; the researchers applied the Tae Bo exercises at the beginning of the preparation time with 15 minutes. The load was graded to 45 minutes at the end of the preparation, taking into account the fixing process of load and adaptation in each stage the players reached.

The use of the music diversity was applied so that the players could not feel bored and tired and introduce of the thrill factor, as indicated by Blanks [1 ] that music helped to delay the onset of fatigue [2].

The Post-measurement: The researchers conducted the post-measurement from 22/9/2009 to 24/9/2009 on the control and experimental groups for the tests under discussion.

The Statistical Analysis: The researchers conducted statistical analysis complied with the nature of the study, through the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skew, correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon value, Mann-Whitney Value and the percentage of improvement.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It is shown in Table 1 that there are statistically significant differences between pre and post tests in the control group in the physiological, physical and skillful tests in question as the calculated W value is less than the tabular W value at the level of statistical significance 0.5.

It is shown in Table 2 that there are statistically significant differences between pre and post tests in the experimental group in the physiological, physical and skillful tests in question as the calculated W value is less than the tabular W value at the level of statistical significance 0.5.

It is clear from Table 3 there are statistical significant differences between control and experimental groups in the post-measurement in favor of the experimental group in the physiological and physical tests and in the tests of dribbling and passing, as the calculated Mann-Whitney value is less than the tabular value of the Mann-Whitney. As for the test of shooting, it did not have a statistical significance as the calculated Mann-Whitney value was greater than the tabular Mann-Whitney value 0.05.

Discussion of the Results of the First Hypothesis:

It is clear from Table 1 that a marked improvement occurred in the physiological, physical and skillful variables under discussion for of the control group in post-measurement. The researchers attribute that improvement to the traditional program, which shares its content with the experimental group program with the exception of Tae Bo exercises applied to the experimental group and the presence of a qualified trainer and the regularity of the players. In addition to the physical and skillful content exists in the traditional program as the process of permanent training works on the creation of the internal organs to adapt rapidly to any new work and leads to improve the functional and physiological ability [24]. Ramadan [9] also pointed out that the training programs lead to the development of person's physical status. The researchers agreed with Abu Talib [12] and Fatiha [25], as their studies demonstrated that training programs lead to the improvement of physiological, physical and skillful aspects. Thus the first hypothesis was supported.

Table 1: Significance of differences between both means of pre and post measures of the experimental group in the physiological, physical and skillful tests under discussion

 

 

Negative Cases

Positive Cases

 

Variables

n

Rank Sum

 

n

Rank Sum

N of Pairs

w

Sig. Level

Physiological

Physical Capacity

-

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

 

V02max

-

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

 

Anaerobic Work

-

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

 

Vital Capacity

-

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

Physical

Shuttle Run

10

55

 

-

0

10

0

Sig.

 

30m Sprint

10

55

 

-

0

10

0

Sig.

 

Vertical Jump

-

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

 

Zigzag Run

9

45

 

-

0

9

0

Sig.

Skilful

Dribbling Around Barriers

10

45

 

-

0

10

0

Sig.

 

Shooting from Under Basket

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

 

Speed & Accuracy of Passing

0

 

10

55

10

0

Sig.

Tabular W value at the level of statistical significance 0.05 = 8

Table 2: The arithmetic mean and the significance of statistical differences for both control and experimental groups in the pre-measurement of physiological, physical and skillful variables under discussion

 

 

Measure

Mean of Con.

Mean of Exp.

Rank Sum

Rank Sum ]

Mann

i- Sig.

 

Variables

Unite

Group

 

Group

of Exp.

of Con.

Whitney Level

Physiological

Physical Capacity

 

821.3

 

1015.5

57

153

18

Sig.

 

V02max

Liter

3.630

 

4.6

73

137

18

Sig.

 

Anaerobic Work

Sec.

11.5

 

13.14

56

154

1

Sig.

 

Vital Capacity

Milliliter

3542.2

 

3950

60

151

5

Sig.

Physical

Shuttle Run

Sec.

61.3

 

58.42

59.5

150

4

Sig.

 

30m Sprint

Sec.

3.5

 

3.1

135

75

20

Sig.

 

Vertical Jump

Cm

45.8

 

47.2

69

141

14

Sig.

 

Zigzag Run

Sec.

18.2

 

16.42

143

67

12

Sig.

Skilful

Dribbling Around Barriers

Sec.

8.1

 

7.83

147

63

8

Sig.

 

Shooting from Under Basket

N

18.7

 

18.8

104.5

105.5

41.5

Sig.

 

Speed & Accuracy of Passing

N

17.5

 

19.9

75

135

20

Sig.

Mann-Whitney value at 0.05 = 23

Table 4: The percentage of improvement between the control and experimental groups in the physiological, physical and skill tests under discussion

 

 

Control

Experimental

 

Variables

Pre

Post %

Improv. Pre

Post

% Improv. Dif.

 

Notes

Physiological

Physical Capacity

726.2

721.3

13.1

730.6

1015.5

38.99 25.9

 

In favor of exp.

 

V02max

3.53

3.63

2.82

3.52

4.6

30.68 27.85

 

In favor of exp.

 

Anaerobic Work

9.32

11.5

23.4

9.51

13.14

38.17 14.77

 

In favor of exp.

 

Vital Capacity

3398.1

3542.2

4.24

3410.2

3950

15.83 11.59

 

In favor of exp.

Physical

Shuttle Run

71.5

61.3

14.27

72

58.42

18.86 4.59

 

In favor of exp.

 

30m Sprint

4

3.5

12.5

4.12

3.1

24.76 20.64

 

In favor of exp.

 

Vertical Jump

43.7

45.8

4.81

42.1

47.2

12.11 7.3

 

In favor of exp.

 

Zigzag Run

19.3

18.2

5.7

19.98

16.42

17.82 12.12

 

In favor of exp.

Skilful

Dribbling Around Barriers

9.32

8.1

13.1

8.92

7.83

12.22 0.88

 

In favor of exp.

 

Shooting from Under Basket

14.3

18.7

30.77

14.9

18.8

26.18 4.59

 

In favor of con.

 

Speed & Accuracy of Passing

16.2

17.5

8.03

17.3

19.9

15.03 2.27

 

In favor of con.

Discussion of the Results of the Second Hypothesis:

It is clear from Table 2 that a marked improvement happened in the physiological, physical and skillful variables under discussion for the experimental group in the post-measurement. The researchers attribute that improvement to the training program which includes the modified Tae Bo exercises performed in the motor course of skillful performance in the form of aerobic and anaerobic training in addition to the scientific method in codifying the training load and the use of methods of interval and continuous training because of their positive impact. Ah [26] indicates that interval and continuous training lead to improvement of aerobic and anaerobic capacity and cause physiological changes, including all parts of the body. Blanks [1 ] also refered that the program of Tae Bo exercises work on improving strength, flexibility, endurance, agility and increase oxygen consumption and thus improve aerobic capacity and respiratory efficiency of the circulatoiy system. According to the researchers, the application of Tae Bo exercises regularly and permanently by 3 training units per week for 12 weeks and gradually upgrading training load and fluctuations in intensity and performance associated with the music in the motor course of skillful performance led to the development of physical and skillful attributes of the players [2,8,10].

Discussion of the Results of the Third Hypothesis:

It is clear from Table 3 the existence of statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups in the post-measurement in favor of the experimental group in the physiological, physical and skill variables under discussion. The researchers attributed these signs to the program of modified Tae Bo exercises with all their aerobic and anaerobic exercises inside the training unit. This contributed to delay the onset of fatigue in conditions of lack of oxygen and thus improve the efficiency of the circulatory system and strengthen the respiratory muscles of breathing and increase air flow to and from the lungs. This contributed to the improvement of vital capacity as well as increasing the ability to transfer oxygen to the parts of the body. This agrees with Blanks [1] as he indicated that Tae Bo exercises work on burning calories and improving the efficiency of pumping the blood and improving the efficiency of work of the heart and reducing stress through performance with music and raising the functional efficiency of the player [2].

In the view of researchers, increase in the functional capacity of the player led to the development of physical and skillful performance of the players since the modified Tae Bo exercises increase endurance, strength, flexibility, agility and speed [1]. Anaerobic exercises lead to significant improvement in the physical characteristics which reflects positively on skillful performance, especially if the development was in the motor course of the skillful performance[9,l 3].

This is consistent with the findings of the study that the Tae Bo exercises should be performed in the motor course of the skillful performance in basketball and the movements should be characterized by continuity with the jumping, hopping and changing the direction accompanied by music to introduce the element of fun, thrill and getting rid of the routine performance of exercise.

CONCLUSION

• The traditional program of the control group had a positive effect, which share its parts with the experimental group in the content except for the Tae Bo exercises, on the physiological; physical and skillful variables under discussion.

• The pilot program had a positive effect on the experimental group, which contains the modified Tae Bo exercises, on the physiological;physical and skillful variables under discussion.

• There have been statistically significant differences in the post-measurement between the control and experimental groups in favor of the experimental group in the physiological; physical and skill variables under discussion.

• The improvement percentage of the experimental group is higher than the improvement percentage of the control group in physiological; physical and skill variables except for shooting and passing under discussion.

Recommenendations:

• The researchers recommend the need to use the modified Tae Bo exercises in the development and improvement of the physiological functions of the basketball players under discussion.

• The modified Tae Bo exercises are recommended to be used in the development of some special physical qualities in basketball.

• Exercises for the development of accuracy are needed to be added in the program of Tae Bo exercises for basketball players.

• Further studies should be conducted to understand how the Tae Bo exercises affect the other motor skills in basketball, especially the skills of possession and control over the ball.

• Further studies should be done on younger levels of age, especially the beginners, as it has an active effect by using music, which is likable for the beginners in basketball and various activities.

REFERENCES

1. Blanks, В., 1999. The Tae-Bo Way. Bantam Dell, Random House Publishing Group,U.S.A, pp: 46-57.

2. Bojana, В., Т. Angelova, V. Ivanova and M. Serafimova, 2003. Physical Education and Sport for Ecology Directed Development of Man. Trakia J. Sci., 1: 42-43.

3. Lysenko, O., 2009. The Features of Functional Capabilities of Elite Basketball Players Related to Game Function. Baltic J. Health and Physical Activity, 1: 42-51.

4. Hoffman, I.R., C.F. Andrew, R. Howard, C.M. Maresh and W.I. Kraemer, 1991. Strength, speed and endurance changes during the course of a division I basketball season. The J. Applied Sport Science Res., 5: 144-149.

5. Boatwright, D. and E. Todd, 1994. Preseason Interval Training Application for Basketball. The Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual, pp: 223-233.

6. Hassan, E.A.H., 1995. The Impact of a Proposed Training Program for the Setup on the Ability of Aerobic and Anaerobic Work for the Football Beginner. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Physical Education, Minia University, Egypt. (In Arabic)

7. Timmons, S., 1996. Increasing Vertical lump: A Comparison between Two Training Programs. Microforms Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, U.S.A,

8. Mousa, S.E., 2002. Effect of a Program of Tae Bo Exercises on the Activity of Thyroid and Basal Metabolism Rate and Some Elements of Kinetic Fitness and the Skilful Level for Performing Some lumps. I. Comprehensive Education Research, Faculty Of Physical Education, Zaqaziq University, (In Arabic) 1: 56.

9. Ramadan, A.M., 1997. The Impact of the Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Work on Some Physical Elements and Some of the Basic Skills of Basketball for Youth of 14-16 Years Old. M.Sc. Thesis , Faculty of Physical Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt, (In Arabic) pp: 120-128.

10. Shams-El-Din, A.A., 2004. Effect of a Proposed Program of Tae Bo Exercises on Improving Some Elements of Physiological Fitness and the Performance Level in Modern Dance. M.Sc. Thesis , Faculty of Physical Education for Girls, Zaqaziq University, Egypt. (In Arabic)

11. Yusuf, S. A., 2004. Effect of Tae Bo Exercises on the Activity of Thyroid and Some Physical Elements and Their Relationship with Performance Level of Fencing Sport. Faculty of Physical Education I., (In Arabic) 9: 65.

12. Abou-Taleb, A.S., 2005. Comparative Study of Techniques of Composing Training Dosages and Their Effect on the Physical and Skilful Performance Level of Basketball Players. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, Tanta University. (In Arabic)

13. Alawy, M.H. and N.E. Radwan, 1994. Tests of Motor Performance . 3rd Edition. Dar El Fekr El Araby,Cairo, Egypt (In Arabic) pp: 50,164,208,284.

14. El-Ruby, A.A., 1996. The Effect of Competition Exercises Using Weights on the Skilful Performance for Beginners Under 14 Years in Basketball. M.Sc.Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, Suez Canal University, Port Said, Egypt, (In Arabic) pp: 38, 168,176.

15. Hassanein, M.S., 2001. Measurements and evaluation in the physical and sports education (4th Ed. Vol. I). Dar Al-Fekr Al-Arabi, Cairo, (InArabic). pp: 63-288.

16. Fawzi, A.A. and M.A. Salama, 1986. A1 Faneya for Printing and Publishing Basketball for Youth, Alexandria, (InArabic). pp: 3,407.

17. Abou-Aram, M. R., 1996. Effect of Hypoxic Exercises on the Digital Level of Diving Players. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty Of Physical Education, Port Said, Egypt, (InArabic). pp: 58,59.

18. Sharkey, В., 1984. Physiology of Fitness. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, pp: 103.

19. Perry, A., P. Mosher, A. La Perriere, M. Roalstad, P. Ostrovsky, 1988. A Comparison of Training Responses to Interval versus Continuous Aerobic Dance. I. Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 3 : 274-279.

20. El-Deyasty, E.E., 1981. Effect of Distributing Training on Some Elements of Physical Fitness and Skilful Performance of the Basketball Beginner. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan University,Cairo, (In Arabic) pp: 47.

21. Abdul Day em, M.M., T. Fekiy and M. Saleh, 1993. Training Program of Physical Preparation and Weights Training. El Ahram Press, Cairo, Egypt, (In Arabic) pp: 27.

22. Hatley-O'Brien, S.J., 1983. Coaching the Female Gymnast. Thomas Publisher. U.S.A, pp: 90-93.

23. Hamada, M.G. and N.H. Hashem, 1992. Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on Motor Speed of Handball Beginners. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of physical Education for Boys, Helwan University, (In Arabic). 8: 65.

24. Abdul-Maksoud, E.S., 1992. Training of Endurance Physiology. El Shabab El Hor Press, Egypt, pp: 60 (In Arabic).

25. Fatiha, Y.A.F., 1990. The Impact of a Proposed Program on Some Physiological and Skillful Aspects of the of Basketball Players. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, Minia, Egypt (In Arabic).

26. All, A.A., 1992. Athletic Training: Between Theoiy and Application. El Motaheda Press, Port Said, (In Arabic), pp: 73.

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