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29 Декабря 2018 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Байковский Юрий Викторович, Ковалева Анастасия Владимировна, Савинкина Александра Олеговна

Techniques for prestart states diagnosis in athletes

Keywords: psychological state, prestart state, observation method, self-evaluation, state anxiety, heart rate variability, bioelectric brain activity.

Abstract. The article discusses and systematizes the main approaches and methods aimed at diagnosing the prestart states of athletes. The advantages, disadvantages, and scope of application of the separate techniques was shown.

Ключевые слова: психологическое состояние, предстартовое состояние, наблюдение, самооценка, ситуационная тревожность, вариабельность ритма сердца, биоэлектрическая активность мозга.

Аннотация. В статье рассмотрены и систематизированы основные подходы и методы, направленные на диагностику предстартовых состояний спортсменов. Показаны преимущества, недостатки и широта применения отдельных методик.

Relevance. The prestart state of an athlete is understood as the conditioned reflex psychological and physiological pre-tuning of a person and his body for the upcoming competitive activity [3]. Diagnostics of the actual prestart state can be used for the operational selection of athletes to participate in the fight [1, 2, 19] or to develop and refine the skills of correction and self-correction of the psychological state in preparation for competitions [10, 23, 28]. Difficulties in diagnosing the prestart psychological state are associated both with the complexity of testing just before the start, and with the internal validity of the tests used.

To diagnose a prestart state, an athlete can perform self-assessment of his own state, determine his anxiety, study of the nervous system, accuracy of movements, analyze of physiological indicators, as well as directly monitor the behavior and psychological state of an athlete. The most commonly used psychological methods for diagnosing a prestart state are specialized questionnaires and tests, a vegetative coefficient in a Luscher test, psycho-physiological and physiological indicators, etc.

Observation as a technique for the diagnosis of prestart psychological state. Observation is a descriptive psychological research technique, consisting in a focused and organized perception and registration of the athlete's behavior. The advantage of this technique is the ability to diagnose the status of an athlete at all stages of preparation and performance at competitions, including immediately before the start. In the observation, as a rule, it is not only the athlete who is included, but also the coach or the team, that allows you to record more accurately and predict the psychological state of the athlete, taking into account both behavioral and emotional aspects. However, the disadvantages of this technique include its subjectivity, the singularity of the observed circumstances and labor-intensiveness [13].

Self-evaluation of prestart psychological state. The techniques related to this section suggest the athlete to make an independent assessment of his own prestart state. In particular, the method of assessing the functional state of «Self-evaluation. Activity. Mood» (SAM) is widely used when working with athletes to diagnose pre-competition and prestart state. The questionnaire includes 30 pairs of diametrically opposed adjectives by which the athlete needs to evaluate himself. It allows you to assess the status of an athlete for each of the three qualities [5].

The motivational state scale was developed by V.F. Sopov and includes 7 statements, rated by the athlete on a 4-point scale. The method makes it possible to identify unfavorable prestart motivational states that may be associated with a conflict in the athlete-trainer system, with doubt in the method of preparing for competitions, etc. The dynamics of the prestart state at different stages of preparation can be assessed. The results of the method are supposed to be analyzed within the framework of the two-level "motivation-anxiety" ordinate system [14].

The scale-thermometer is an operational tool for self-evaluation of an athlete's condition according to two criteria: "well-being" and "desire to work". The athlete is proposed to rate his condition on horizontal lines with marks from 1 to 20. The technique can be modified by the addition of other scales [6].

Despite the relative ease of application of these techniques, diagnostics of a prestart state based on self-evaluation may be associated with the social desirability of answers and the subjectivity of an athlete. Repeated measurement of self-evaluation can affect subsequent diagnostic results. In addition, as a rule, immediately before the start, athletes do not have the opportunity to fill out questionnaires, and therefore these methods are more suitable for diagnosing a pre-competitive, rather than prestart state.

Diagnosis of anxiety as an indicator of prestart psychological state. Anxiety is traditionally regarded as one of the main indicators of an athlete's readiness for competition. The reactive alarm scale was developed by C. Spielberger and adapted in Russian by Yu.L. Hanin. The Spielberger - Khanin questionnaire includes 20 statements with four answer choices for each of them: "I am calm," "Nothing threatens me," etc. [24, 25, 33-35]. This technique was used in numerous domestic [4, 8, 9, 12] and foreign studies [27, 31, 36]. In addition to reactive (situational) anxiety, C. Spielberger suggested studying the athlete's personal anxiety as a stable feature of his character [33].

To study the prestart state, we also use Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT), developed by R. Martens [30]. The test includes 15 questions, 10 of which are aimed at diagnosing anxiety, 5 - constitute a «scale of lies.» The technique, along with the Spielberger - Khanin questionnaire, was used in many studies [12, 22, 29].

The study of activation-fatigue of the nervous system. The diagnosis of a person's energy plant can be made on the basis of the vegetative coefficient in the Luscher test. This indicator was proposed by K. Shyposh and is determined by the ratio of the positions of mobilizing (red, yellow) and passive colors (blue, green) in the choice of an athlete. The test allows to assess the psychological state of the athlete in the continuum from exhaustion and mindset to optimize the expenditure of forces to mobilization and excessive arousal [13].

Evaluation of physiological indicators prestart psychological state. The most frequently used indicators in psychophysiology and physiology reflecting various functional and psycho-emotional states of a person are indicators of the cardiovascular system, skin conduction and bioelectric brain activity. Sometimes only changes in heart rate (HR) are analyzed. But, despite the ease of registration, this indicator has a lot of laws from the substantive point of view. The problem of using heart rate as an indicator of stress and / or psycho-emotional stress is related to the fact that many factors affect the heart rate (including heart rate). Registering only the heart rate and tracking its dynamics when a person's state changes, we cannot speculate about what is happening in the body, the influence of which factors led to visible changes in the heart rate. Thus, an increase in heart rate can be caused both by an increase in sympathetic influences and a weakening of parasympathetic ones. Therefore, in research to diagnose the functional states of a person, methods are used aimed at a deeper analysis of the heart rhythm, the study of its variability.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is understood to mean the spread of the interval between adjacent R-delection (RR-intervals) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) record. According to the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the rhythmic oscillations of the RR intervals, one can judge the state of the regulatory mechanisms of the human body [7]. In a calm relaxed state, different rhythm interval intervals are present in the rhythmogram recording. Under stress, the duration of RR-intervals decreases, and their variability decreases (the work of the heart begins to obey a more rigid uniform rhythm). Quantitative assessment of these indicators allows time and frequency variants of heart rhythm analysis [15, 16].

Time analysis of the heart rhythm involves the calculation of indicators such as the average duration of RR-intervals, their standard deviation, as well as the construction of histograms of the distribution of cardiointervals and the calculation of additional indicators and indices: distribution mode, mode amplitude, variation scale, Bayevsky stress index. Frequency (wave) analysis of heart rate variability is based on the construction of cardiorhythmogram spectra with the allocation of its three main components: VLF (very low frequency), LF - low frequency, HF - high frequency. By the contribution of each of these components to the total spectral power, one can judge the influence that prevails at a given period of time: sympathetic, parasympathetic, or the influence of suprasegmental (higher) brain regions on the heart rhythm. The results obtained for the work of the heart can be transferred to the whole organism as a whole and judge the degree of emotional stress of a person, the severity of his stress state [7].

In addition to the parameters of the heart in studies to assess the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the functional state and to assess the level of emotional stress, a number of other physiological indicators are used. Measurement of skin conduction (or the inverse of its value - skin resistance) is used to assess the degree of emotional stress of a person [21], in assessing stress [32], driving preassure [26]. This method has a very high sensitivity, since at the slightest change in a person's condition, the sympathetic section of the ANS is activated, which causes increased sweating and a drop in skin resistance (or increase in conductivity).

In psychophysiological studies to measure the functional state of an individual, the measurement of the peripheral temperature of the phalanges of the fingers is used. The relationship between peripheral temperature and psychoemotional stress is as follows: during stress, the sympathetic division of the ANS is activated, its fibers have a vasoconstrictive effect on peripheral vasses, less blood lows to the finger and its temperature decreases. During relaxing the reverse process happens.

The tension of the muscles of the face (in particular the forehead) and the muscles of the upper shoulder girdle (trapezoid muscles) is an informative indicator of the presence of psycho-emotional stress. Muscle tension is assessed according to the results of surface electromyography (EMG).

The parameters of the bioelectrical activity of the brain are most often calculated on the basis of the registration of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Certain frequency ranges of EEG rhythms are associated with the activity of different parts of the brain (both the cortex and subcortical structures), as well as changes in the level of general activation and changes in the functional states of the human body. According to the degree of the alpha rhythm in the EEG, one can judge the level of wakefulness and the functional state of a person. In studies conducted with the participation of professional athletes and musicians, it was shown that for the best performance of motor acts the brain is optimal in which a pronounced alpha rhythm is recorded in the EEG [11, 17, 18].

In several studies on sports related to aiming (golf and shooting), the change in physiological parameters was studied immediately before the strike or shot, taking into account the qualification (experience) of the athlete and the success of the subsequent strike or shot [11, 17, 20]. In these studies, a slowing of the heart rate is observed immediately before a stroke or shot, and the more experienced the athlete is, the more pronounced is his slowing pulse.

In studies of Napalkov D.A. et al. [11] clearly demonstrated that the experienced shooters immediately before the shot increases the severity of alpha activity, and with a shift to a higher frequency range compared to the initial frequency of the alpha rhythm. Such effects are associated with the automation of motor skills in experienced athletes, with more economical use of brain resources, suppression of the processing of information that is not needed at the moment. However, in those sports where the so-called explosive power is a key success factor, the mechanisms for improving performance can be completely different.

Conclusion. Diagnostics of the prestart state of an athlete can be performed not only using psychological methods such as observation, questioning, scaling, projective tests, etc., but also using psycho-physiological and physiological equipment that objectively records the athlete's condition. Despite the wide application of the described methods, the athlete's standard readiness indicators for competitions in each scale will vary not only in different sports, but will also be individual for each athlete, which has been repeatedly emphasized in the theoretical approaches of A.V. Alekseeva, Yu.L. Khanin and others. Therefore, for the diagnosis of the pre-start condition, it is preferable to select those techniques that not only can be performed organizationally in the last minutes before the start, but also allow the athlete to be repeatedly assessed, which will allow him to identify the optimal (combat) state.

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  18. Bazanova O.M. et al. Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological basis. // Neuroscience and behavioral physiology. - Vol. 39 (5). - 2009, P. 437-447
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  20. Cooke R. J. et al. Precision measures of the primordial deuterium abundance // Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. - 2014. - Т. 85. - С. 192.
  21. Dindo L. et al. The skin conductance orienting response to semantic stimuli: Significance can be independent of arousal // Psychophysiology. - 2008. - Т. 45. - №. 1. - С. 111-118.
  22. Dunn J. G. H. et al. Relationships among the sport competition anxiety test, the sport anxiety scale, and the collegiate hockey worry scale //Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. - 2001. - Т. 13. - №. 4. - С. 411-429.
  23. Halo P. V., Khvalebo G. V., Turevskiy I. M. System approach to development of model of optimal prestart state // Theory and Practice of Physical Culture. - 2015. - №. 12. - С. 22-22.
  24. Hanin Y. L., Spielberger C. D. The development and validation of the Russian Form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory //Series in Clinical & Community Psychology: Stress & Anxiety. - 1983.
  25. Hanin Y. L. State-trait anxiety research on sports in the USSR //Cross-cultural anxiety. - 1986. - Т. 3. - С. 45-64.
  26. Healey J. A., Picard R. W. Detecting stress during real-world driving tasks using physiological sensors // IEEE Transactions on intelligent transportation systems. - 2005. - Т. 6. - №. 2. - С. 156-166.
  27. Kenny D. T. Music performance anxiety: Origins, phenomenology, assessment and treatment // Context. - 2006. - С. 51-64.
  28. Kernas A. V. Diagnosis Structural Components Prelaunch Emotional States in Sportsman Single Combat // Asian Social Science. - 2014. - Т. 10. - №. 19. - С. 30.
  29. Lavallee L., Flint F. The relationship of stress, competitive anxiety, mood state, and social support to athletic injury //Journal of athletic training. - 1996. - Т. 31. - №. 4. - С. 296.
  30. Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  31. Mellalieu S. D. et al. A competitive anxiety review: Recent directions in sport psychology research // Literature reviews in sport psychology. - 2006. - С. 1-45.
  32. Setz C. et al. Discriminating stress from cognitive load using a wearable EDA device //IEEE Transactions on information technology in biomedicine. - 2010. - Т. 14. - №. 2. - С. 410-417.
  33. Spielberger C. D., Gorsuch R. L., Lushene R. E. The state-trait anxiety inventory: test manual //Palo Alto, CA, Consulting Psychologists. - 1970. - Т. 22.
  34. Spielberger C. D. et al. Examination stress and test anxiety //Stress and anxiety. - 1978. - Т. 5. - С. 167-191.
  35. Spielberger C. D., Vagg P. R. (ed.). Test anxiety: Theory, assessment, and treatment. - Taylor & Francis, 1995.
  36. Szabo A. The acute effects of humor and exercise on mood and anxiety //Journal of Leisure Research. - 2003. - Т. 35. - №. 2. - С. 152.

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