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Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Кениоуа Моулоуд, Боумасэд Абд Елкадер

Sport and mental health level among university students

Abstract:

Purpose: study of mental health level of university student, athletes and non-athletes. Material: The tested group consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates from Ouargla University, Algeria; 80 students-athletes from Institute of Physical Education and Sports and 80 students-non-athletes from Department of Psychology, English and Mathematics. In the study we used health mental scale, adapted by Diab (2006) to Arab version scale, formed from five dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self rating and aspects of natural deficiencies). Results: the findings indicated that university students have high level of mental health. And the mean of the responses of students-athletes group by mental health scale reached (M = 32.40), with standard deviation (STD =5.83), while the mean of the responses of students-non athletes group by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47), with standard deviation (STD=7.88). T-value, required to know significance of differences between means of students-athletes and students-non athletes has reached (T=4.51), (DF=185, p <0.01). So there are significant statistical differences between student athletes and non-athletes in their responses by mental health scale in favor of the student athletes. Conclusion: sports are beneficial in respect to mental health among university students and emphasizing the importance of the mental health of university students through its integration in the various recreational and competitive activities. Future qualitative research, covering multi-variables' tests on mental health and others psychological characteristics could be performed in sports area.

Кениоуа Моулоуд, Боумасэд Абд Елкадер. Спорт и уровень психического здоровья среди студентов высших учебных заведений. Цель: изучение уровня психического здоровья студента университета, спортсменов и не спортсменов. Материал: Тестируемая группа состояла из 160 юношей и девушек из университета Оуаргла, Алжир; 80 студентов-спортсменов из института физкультуры и спорта и 80 студентов не спортсменов из отдела психологии, английского языка и математики. В исследовании мы использовали шкалу психического здоровья, адаптированного Diab (2006) в арабской версии. Шкала формируется из пяти измерений (компетентность и уверенность в себе, способность к социальному взаимодействию, эмоциональная зрелость, свобода от невротических симптомов, самооценка и аспекты природных недостатки). Результаты: Результаты показали, что студенты университета имеют высокий уровень психического здоровья. Среднее значение ответов группы студентов-спортсменов по шкале психического здоровья достигнуто значения М = 32,40 со стандартным отклонением STD = 5,83. В тоже время среднее значение ответов группы студентов не спортсменов по шкале психического здоровья достиг значения М = 27,47 со стандартным отклонением STD = 7,88. T-критерий значимости различий между средними студентов-спортсменов и студентами не спортсменами достиг значения - t = 4,51 (DF = 185, р <0,01). Таким образом, существуют значительные статистические различия между студентами спортсменами и не спортсменами в ответах по шкалы психического здоровья в пользу студентов спортсменов. Выводы: спортивные состязания полезны в отношении психического здоровья среди студентов высших учебных заведений. Подчеркивается важность психического здоровья студентов путем их интеграции в различную развлекательную и соревновательную деятельность. Будущие качественные исследования, охватывающие тесты мульти-переменных на психическое здоровье и другие психологические характеристики, могут выполняться в спортивной сфере.

Кеніоуа Моулоуд, Боумасед Абд Елкадер. Спорт і рівень психічного здоров’я серед студентів вищих навчальних закладів. Мета: вивчення рівня психічного здоров’я студента університету, спортсменів і не спортсменів. Матеріал: Тестована група складалася з 160 юнаків і дівчат з університету Оуаргла, Алжир; 80 студентів-спортсменів з інституту фізкультури і спорту та 80 студентів не спортсменів з відділу психології, англійської мови та математики. У дослідженні ми використовували шкалу психічного здоров’я, адаптовану Diab (2006) в арабської версії. Шкала формується з п’яти вимірювань (компетентність і впевненість в собі, здатність до соціальної взаємодії, емоційна зрілість, свобода від невротичних симптомів, самооцінка і аспекти природних недоліки). Результати: Результати показали, що студенти університету мають високий рівень психічного здоров’я. Середнє значення відповідей групи студентів-спортсменів за шкалою психічного здоров’я досягнуло значення М = 32,40 зі стандартним відхиленням STD = 5,83. У той же час середнє значення відповідей групи студентів не спортсменів за шкалою психічного здоров’я досягло значення М = 27,47 зі стандартним відхиленням STD = 7,88. T-критерій значущості відмінностей між середніми студентів-спортсменів і студенти не спортсменів досяг значення - t = 4,51 (DF = 185, р <0,01). Таким чином, існують значні статистичні відмінності між студентами спортсменами і не спортсменами у відповідях по шкали психічного здоров’я на користь студентів спортсменів. Висновки: спортивні змагання корисні щодо психічного здоров’я серед студентів вищих навчальних закладів. Підкреслюється важливість психічного здоров’я студентів шляхом їх інтеграції в різну розважальну і змагальну діяльність. Майбутні якісні дослідження, що охоплюють тести мультизмінних на психічне здоров’я та інші психологічні характеристики, можуть виконуватися спортивній сфері.

Keywords:

mental health, sports, university students. психическое здоровье, спорт, студенты, высшие учебные заведения. психічне здоров’я, спорт, студенти, вищі навчальні заклади.

Introduction

Although it has been known for some time that physical exercises are good for physical health, it is within the past decade, that it has become commonplace to read in magazines and health newsletters that exercises can also be valuable in promoting sound psychological health. This optimistic appraisal has attracted a great deal of attention among public. However, for the most part, scientific community has been much more cautions in offering such unsubstantiated endorsement. Until recent time, assessment of the research literature on psychological outcomes associated with exercise, such as reduced anxiety and depression, current state have been equivocal. (Landers & Arent, 2001).

Ninety-five percents of college counseling center directors said that the number of students with significant psychological problems is of growing concern in their centers or campus, according to the latest Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors survey of counseling center directors. Seventy percents of directors believe that the number of students with severe psychological problems in their campuses has increased in the past year (Directors report that 21 % of counseling center students had severe mental health problems, while another 40 % had mild mental health problems). (AUCCCD, 2013).

People have regular tendency to do so, because it gives them an enormous sense of well-being. They feel more energetic throughout the day, sleep better at night, have sharper memory, and feel more relaxed and positive about themselves and their lives. And it's also powerful medicine for many common mental health challenges. Most previous researches do conclude that sports, physical activity and exercises do have beneficial effects on general mental health. Within higher education environment, it is surprising that little research has explored the potential benefits of sports in a cohort of individuals who are at risk of mental health problems, i.e., university students. Of the few studies that have been conducted, Van Raalte et al. (2015) referred that viewing the www.SupportForSport.org site resulted in enhanced mental health referral knowledge and efficacy relative to a control group. Results suggest that tailored on-line programming can affect outcomes for student-athletes across geographic region and resource availability levels. Tyson et al. (2010) conducted a study on physical activity and mental health in student population. Results indicated that significant differences were observed between the low, medium and high exercise groups on the mental health scales, indicating better mental health for those, who engaged in more intensive exercises' practicing. Whilst Ahmadi et al. (2002) reported that engaging in body building and swimming reduced scores on the beck Depression Inventory in female students, other searcher Toskovic (2001) found that students engaging in dynamic Taekwondo also reported lower levels of depression than in control group.

The purpose of study

Taking into account the evidence to suggest that sports are beneficial for mental health, and that university students are at elevated risk of such problems, the following study sought to investigate the impact of sports on mental health level among university students.

For the purpose of this study, the research study questions were as follows:

SQ1. What's the level of health mental among university students?

SQ2. Are there significant differences in the level of mental health between student athletesand non-athletes?

The Hypotheses

HY1. There is high level of mental health among university students.

HY2. There are significant differences in the level of mental health between student athletes and non-athletes.

Material and methods

Participants

The sample of study consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates students from Ouargla University Algeria; 80 students' athletes from Institute of Physical Education and Sports and 80 students' non-athletes from Department of Psychology, English and Mathematics (figure.1). Participants were selected randomly.

Tool

In this study, Scale of Mental Health was used to collect data. adapted by Diab (2006) to Arab version, scale formed from ive dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self-rating and aspects of natural deficiencies).

To ensure the psychometric properties of the scale, it has been applied on 30 students; as the value of validity scale (T= 7.91) level of significance (0.01). The reliability was done, the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to (0.67) and the value of Spearman- Brown coefficient equal to (0.87).

Data analysis

Data analysis was carried out with the help of statistical packet for social sciences (SPSS) 20.00 software program. The results were presented as descriptive statistics. Regarding the correct tool, there is in front of each item estimate balance consists of one degree, where the "no" give (0) and "Yes" to give (1).

Results

In this section, the findings obtained from the data analysis related Sports and mental health level among university students are given in detail. Findings concerning the level of mental health among university students are shown in table 1.

Table 1. Distribution percentages for members of sample on the mental health scale

Level of mental health

Repetition

percentage

High level

136

85%

Low level

24

15%

Total

160

100%

In table 1, the number of students with high mental health has reached (s= 136), percentage (85%). While the number of students with low mental health has reached (s=24), percentage (15%). Thus, we can conclude that the level of mental health among students is high.

Sport and mental health level among university students.png

Figure.1. Distribution the members of sample

Table 2. Significance of differences in the mental health level of the tested sample

Sample

N

M

Std

T Calculated

DF

Sing

Student-athletes

80

32.40

5.83

4.51

158

yes

Student-non athletes

80

27.47

7.88

0.01

In table 2, mean values of students-athletes group's responses by mental health scale has reached (M = 32.40), with standard deviation (STD =5.83), while the mean values of students-non athletes group's responses by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47), with standard deviation (STD=7.88). T -value (to know significance of differences between means of group student athletes and group students' athletes) has reached (T=4.51), (DF=185, p <0.01). So, there are significant statistical differences between students-athletes and non-athletes in their responses by mental health scale in favor of students-athletes.

Discussion

The study, which was carried out in order to determine the level of mental health among students, revealed some important information, findings, and results. As results of this study, it was concluded that the students in university had high level of mental health.

This study differs from most previous studies, except the work of Samin (2012), who showed that there was high personal compatibility among university students. This difference exists due to nature of the mentioned studies' goals as well as different characteristics of the samples in their sex, age, and cultural/social background. Based on the above, and the result of our findings of the first hypothesis, it is clear that there are factors helping students, such as social conditions, stable economic and situations, making them to feel self-importance as well as enabling them to cope with the psychological effects of life difficulties that might pass out during the study. These factors contribute to the sharp rise in the degree of psychological and social compatibility, and represent a kind of moral support, stimulating students' abilities to cope with various difficulties. Ganellen et al. (1984) referred that these factors mitigate the impact pressure on the individual, and strengthen psychological sources, and increase individual's sense of value and importance.

Basing on results we concluded that there were signfiicant differences between students-athletes and students-non athletes in level of mental health. Perhaps sports activities affect the various aspects of personality and growth, and also develop some life needs of students, thus influencing on their behavior and personality. For example, opportunity for social interaction (Crone et al.2005), psycho-social, such as positive emotional experiences (Carless and Douglass, 2004; Carless & Sparkes, 2008; Crone, 2007), sense of achievement (Fogarty and Happell,2005) and improvements in general mental wellbeing (Laforge et al., 2002), are positively influenced on by sport activity as well as moderate depression (Craft, 2005; Craft & Perna, 2004) and anxiety (Biddle & Mutrie, 2001). Sports activity promotes self-confidence Larry (1983) referred that physical exercises let college men to be more satisfied, more outgoing, sociable and confident.

Conclusion

Finally, there is high level of mental health among university students in University Ouargla, and there are significant differences between students-athletes and students-non athletes. Thus, sports have potential to be of benefit for mental health of university students and emphasize importance of the mental health of university students through its integration in the various recreational and competitive activities.

Future qualitative research, covering multi-variables' tests on mental health and others psychological characteristics could be performed in sports area.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

References

Ahmadi J, Samavat F, Sayyad M, & Ghanizadeh A. Various types of exercise and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

Psychological Reports, 2002; 90(3): 821-822. AUCCCD. College students' mental health is a growing concern, survey finds. Monitor on psychology, 2013;44(6): 13-20. Biddle SJH, & Mutrie N. Psychology of physical activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. London: Routledge; 2001. Carless D, & Douglas K. A golf programme for people with severe and enduring mental illness. Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 2004;3(4): 26–39.

Carless D, & Sparkes A. Narrative, identity and mental health: How men with serious mental illness restory their lives through sport and exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008; 9(5): 576-594. Craft LL. Exercise and clinical depression: Examining two psychological mechanisms. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2005;6(2): 151-171.

Craft LL, & Perna FM. The benefits of exercise for the clinically depressed. Primary Care Companion, Journal ofClinical Psychiatry, 2004; 6: 104-111.

Crone D. Walking back to health: A qualitative investigation into service user's experiences of a walking project. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2007;28(2): 167-183.

Crone D, Smith A, & Gough B. 'I feel totally alive, totally happy and totally at one': A psycho-social explanation of the physical activity and mental health relationship from the experiences of participants on exercise referral schemes. Health Education Research, 2005; 20(5): 600-611.

Diab AAM. Social Support as a Mediating Factor between Stressful Events and Mental Health for Palestinian Adolescents.

Unpublished master thesis. Psychology Department University of Gaza. Palestine; 2006. Fogarty M, & Happell B. Exploring the benefits of an exercise program for people with schizophrenia:A qualitative study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2005; 26, 341-351. Ganellen R. Hardiness and Social Support as Moderators of the Effect of Life Stress. Journal of Personality and Psychology, 1984;47(1): 156-163.

Laforge RG, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Levesque DA, & McHorney CA. Stage ofexercise and health related quality of life. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2002;28(4): 349-360. Landers MD, & Arent MS. physical activity and mental health. In: RN Singer, HA Hausenblas and CM Janelle. (Ed). Handbook of sport psychology. John Wiley and Sons: New York;2001. Larry AT. Muscular Strength and Mental Health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983;45(6): 1355-1360. Samin ZB. Personal compatibility and its relationship of Exercise among university students. Journal of College of Basic Education, 2012;74:100-115.

Toskovic N. Alterations in selected measures of mood with a single bout of dynamic Taekwondo exercise in college-age students.

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2001; 92(3): 1031-1038. Tyson P, Wilson K, Crone D, Brailsford R, & Laws K. Physical activity and mental health in a student population. Journal of Mental Health. 2010;1:1-8.

Van Raalte LJ, Cornelius EA, Andrews S, Diehl SN, & Brewer WB. Mental Health Referral for Student-Athletes: Web-Based Education and Training. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2015; 9: 197-212. doi:10.1123/jcsp.2015-0011

Информация об авторах:

Кениоуа Моулоуд; http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5405-5723; moukenioua@gmail.com; Институт физического воспитания и спорта университета Оуаргла; BP 511, Роуте Гхардаиа, Оуаргла, 30000, Алжир.

Боумасэд Абд Елкадер; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1924-3315; aboumesjed@yahoo.fr; Институт физического воспитания и спорта университета Оуаргла; BP 511, Роуте Гхардаиа, Оуаргла, 30000, Алжир.

Цитируйте эту статью как: Кениоуа Моулоуд, Боумасэд Абд Елкадер. Спорт и уровень психического здоровья среди студентов высших учебных заведений // Физическое воспитание студентов. - 2016. - № 3. - С. 39-42. doi:10.15561/20755279.2016.0305

Электронная версия этой статьи является полной и может быть найдена на сайте: http://www.sportpedu.org.ua/html/arhive.html

Это статья Открытого Доступа распространяется под терминами Creative Commons Attribution License, которая разрешает неограниченное использование, распространение и копирование любыми средствами, обеспечивающими должное цитирование этой оригинальной статьи (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ru).

Дата поступления в редакцию: 18.06.2016

Принята: 26.06.2016; Опубликована: 28.06.2016

Information about the authors:

Kenioua Mouloud; http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5405-5723; moukenioua@gmail.com; Institute of physical education and sport University Ouargla; BP 511, Route Ghardaia, Ouargla, 30000, Algeria.

Boumasjed Abd Elkade; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1924-3315; aboumesjed@yahoo.fr; Institute of physical education and sport University Ouargla; BP 511, Route Ghardaia, Ouargla, 30000, Algeria.

Cite this article as: Kenioua Mouloud, Boumasjed Abd Elkader. Sport and mental health level among university students. Physical education of students, 2016;3:39-42. doi:10.15561/20755279.2016.0305

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.sportpedu.org.ua/html/arhive-e.html

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en).

Received: 18.06.2016

Accepted: 26.06.2016; Published: 28.06.2016

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