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29 декабря 2018 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Синхронное плавание

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Шумова Наталия Сергеевна, Шурочкина Мария Владимировна

Self-presentation in synchronized swimming

Keywords: self-presentation, identity, personal maturity, conformism, stress.

Abstract. Self-presentation plays an important role in those kind of sports, where results are judging by subjective criteria. The stereotypedness of the self-presentation in synchronized swimming is necessary for performances in a group, to impede the development of individuality and its involvement in overcoming stress.

Ключевые слова: самопрезентация, идентичность, личностная зрелость, конформизм, стресс.

Аннотация. Самопрезентация играет важную роль в тех видах спорта, где результаты оцениваются по субъективным критериям. Трафаретность самопрезентации в синхронном плавании, необходимая при выступлениях в группе, препятствует развитию индивидуальности и ее задействованию при преодолении стресса.

The relevance of research. The success of self-presentation mostly determines success in business, in personal relationships, as well as achievements in sports, where results are judged by subjective criteria. Factors affecting the success of self-presentation, the laws governing the formation of a socially attractive image are more and more interested not only by specialists, but also by a wide audience, including athletes. To create an expressive image, you need to be able to highlight and emphasize individual and typical features; figurative characteristics should not be smoothed or leveled [6, 11, 13]. Self-presentation, in turn, directly affects the identity, understood as the experience and construction of a personality by a person [1].

The problem of self-presentation is particularly relevant for complex coordination sports, where sports results are evaluated by subjective criteria and an important role is played by the impression that the athlete makes on the judging team when performing motor actions

Individuality in a sports team for the overall success of a team is often suppressed, as it is required to follow the ideals and values of the team. Standardizing processes contribute to the rapid and effective solution of stereotypical tasks, but lead to uniformity of emotions in the group, contribute to the loss of flexibility, the predominance of the pattern of reactions, inhibit the further development of the group [8]. The predominance of the performing nature of creative activities, playing games prevents the formation of resources, the growth of opportunities, obtaining rich sensorimo-or experience and practical skills that could be useful in the future, does not allow to stimulate cognitive functions, consciously work on yourself, try to more accurately enter various images etc. [10, 11]. All this makes the study of the features of self-presentation in complex coordination sports, including synchronized swimming, an interesting and urgent task.

Organization of the study. We conducted a comparative study of the tactics of self-presentation, the severity of the status of professional identity, the level of stress, and the structure of the relationship between these indicators in the two groups of subjects:

  • Russian national team in synchronized swimming (7 Honored Masters of Sports, 4 of them are Olympic champions, 4 world-class Masters of Sports, 5 Masters of Sports, n = 16). Conventional name is "Olymp";
  • students of SCOLIPE specializing in water sports (water polo - 4 people, swimming - 4 people, synchronized swimming - 4 people), including 1 world-class Master of Sports, 8 Candidates Master of Sports, 3 Masters of Sports), n = 12, Conventional name is - "SCOLIPE."

The age of sportswomen is 16-29 years old. The study of team "Olymp" was conducted by Shurochkina M.V. on the Olympic sports base "Ozero Krugloe", the team " SCOLIPE " - in the Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports, Youth and

Tourism (SCOLIFK) in March 2018.

The methodology. The data were obtained using the following psychodiagnostic methods: scales of measurement of self-presentation tactics by S. Lee, B. Quigley, and others [14]; methods of studying the status of professional identity A.G. Gretsova, A. A. Azbel [5]; psychological stress scale PSM-25 L.Lemyre, R.Tessier, L. Fillion in the adaptation of N.E. Vodopianova [4].

The results of the study. The subjects of the group "Olymp", compared with the group "SCOLIPE", showed significantly less developed, "diffuse" identity, reliably more frequent use of both protective and assertive self-presentation tactics (Table, Figure 1).

Such assertive tactics of self-presentation, which are reliably more often used in the group "Olymp" compared to the group "SCOLIPE", are: "desire / efort to please"; "attributing to oneself achievements", "exaggerating one's achievements" and "negative evaluation of others" are based on real facts, because the success of the group "Olymp" of subjects is indeed much higher than that of the subjects of the group "SCOLIPE".

Table - Differences in the Mann-Whitney U-test data of two groups: «Olymp» (n=16) and «SCOLIPE» (n=12)






central case


central case


Scale for measuring self-presentation tactics S. Lee, B. Quigley

Denial of responsibility






Acceptance with responsibility
























Desire / effort to please












Request / plea






Attribution of achievements






Exaggeration of achievements






Negative evaluation of others






An example to follow






Methods of studying the status of prof. identity AG Gretsova, A. A. Azbel

Indefinite (diffuse)
























Psychological stress scale PSM-25

Mental Tension Indicator






Note: * (**) - the differences are significant at p<0.05 (p<0.01).


Figure 1 - Differences between self-presentation tactics, stress level and status of professional identity group "Olymp" (n = 16) and group "SCOLIPE", (n = 12)

Reliably more frequent use by the group "Olymp" of subjects than the group "SCOLIPE" of such tactics of self-presentation of a protective type as: "justification with denial of responsibility", justification with acceptance of responsibility "(aimed at avoiding" sanctions "for mistakes or bad deeds) is based the fact that team responsibility makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of the actions of an individual athlete, her personal contribution to the overall result.

The structure of relationships in the group "Olymp" (Figure 2) is reliably distinguished by the presence of a complex of assertive (adequate) tactics of self-presentation, interconnected with the desire (effort) to be liked. Manifestations of this complex in the behavior of athletes of the group "Olymp" are the higher, the higher the level of stress. However, two indicators - "Moratorium" and "Formed Identity", the inverse relationship between which is similar to that in the group "SCOLIPE", in the group "Olymp" are not related to the described complex. In other words, in the group "Olymp", self-presentation is not related to professional identity.

Discussion of the research results. The less formed, diffuse identity of the group "Olymp" of subjects is a consequence of the infantilism of their personality. Infantile personality does not cope with the bonding and discriminating work necessary for the integration of disparate ideas about themselves and others, to unite their past, present and future identity into a complex spatial-temporal (continual) integrity [9].

As a rule, doubts about the value of one's personality characteristic of an immature identity are accompanied by: moderate degree of dissatisfaction with oneself, bordering on indifference to oneself, a tendency to conformism, low psychological autonomy, submission (to a coach, a group of peers), acceptance of others, ready-made patterns and patterns activities [7].

There is a possibility that from this stage the subjects will be able to move to a "moratorium" and then to "achieved identity". To do this, you need to get a clear idea of how to adapt to social relations, about your qualities, combine your "I" into a stable and continuous, go through the period of making your own decisions, including when choosing a system of values or future professional activities.

However, most often, the infantilism tendencies that characterize an unformed (diffuse) identity with the further maturity only increase, and the indicators of socio-psychological adaptation and personal maturity decrease. These tendencies are accompanied by: the desire to escape from reality, self-denial, dependence, experiencing emotional discomfort, pessimism, apathy, depression, undirected anger, alienation, anxiety, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness [3, 12].

Reliably more frequent use of protective and assertive self-presentation tactics in the group "Olymp" suggests that the subjects of this group are more inclined to manage their own self-presentation taking into account the specific social situation compared to the group "SCOLIPE".

Our subjects of the group "Olymp" are high-qualification synchronous sportswomen - masters of sports of world class, honored masters of sports and Olympic champions (Rio de Janeiro, 2016) can be classified as representatives of public professions (actors, politicians, etc.) , having a high level of self-monitoring (self-control, communicative control). They are attentive to appearance, easily adapt to the expectations of the audience, maintain frequent contact with many people, but they may not rely on their own attitudes when making decisions [2]. In the event of a negative reaction from a biased audience, female athletes can turn to self-presentation defensive tactics (for example, to "prevent oneself" - creating the appearance of interference). It is good that at this time our team in synchronized swimming is a favorite of international competitions.

The lack of an interconnection between tactics of self-presentation and professional identity in the group "Olymp" does not allow female athletes to rely on identity, for example, in overcoming stress, creates a high risk of destabilization of self-relationship, over-dependence on significant others.

The stencil of the self-presentation of the subjects of the group "Olymp" does not allow, experimenting with identity, to receive support in the manifestation of their individual qualities, and this is an important condition for the development of individuality.


Figure 2 - Significantly different fragments of the correlation graphs of the group "Olymp" and group "SCOLIPE"

The formation of a more complex and well-functioning self-regulation system requires serious work of specialists in the formation of personality based on the knowledge of the resources and capabilities of a particular synchronizer.


1. In the group "Olymp", compared with the group "SCOLIPE", the immature, unformed, diffuse identity is more pronounced, self-presentation is focused on meeting the expectations and preferences of the audience, and not on their own self-esteem or personal idea of the ideal. Their social role and the need to match the role is poorly understood by the subjects.

2. The group "Olymp" subjects are reliably more likely than the group "SCOLIPE" to use a variety of self-presentation tactics aimed at:

  • please, make an impression of a successful, strong, status person;
  • receive support as necessary with threats and intimidation, as well as with requests and pleas;
  • protect the image created by demonstrating existing or made-up problems due to excessive focus on the features of appearance and character and poor awareness of their social role.

3. The frequency of manifestation of a complex of assertive types of self-presentation, interconnected with the desire, diligence to please the subjects of the group "Olymp" is interconnected with the level of stress and is not related to the level of formation of professional identity (unlike the subjects of the group "SCOLIPE"). This creates a high risk of destabilization of self-attitude among the subjects of the "Olympus" group, their over-dependence in stressful conditions on the assessments of significant others.

4. The subjects of the group "SCOLIPE"revealed an interconnectedness of the "moratorium" of identity and the frequency of self-presentation protective tactics (mainly aimed at avoiding responsibility, "sanctions" for mistakes or bad actions).


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