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01 Мая 2015 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Родионов В. А., Непопалов В. Н.

Psychology of sports in Leningrad and Saint-Ppetersburg

Psychology of sports in Leningrad

The starting point of development of sports psychology in Leningrad considers opening the chair of psychology in the State twice decorated with an order Institute of Physical Culture by P.F.Lesgaft in 1946. Under guideline of the founder of the chair Avksentiy Tsezarevich Puni the team of researchers intensively worked on following directions:

  • Development and reading the psychological courses for the coaches to be and teachers of physical training;
  • Research of scientific problems of psychology and physical training (in particular: development of impellent skills, perfection of psychomotorical functions, formation of strong-willed qualities of an athlete, etc.).
  • Development of techniques of psychological support of an athlete and teams.

During effective cooperation in 1950th years on the basis of the chair the Leningrad scientific school of sport psychology was formed. The founder and its leader was professor A.T.Puni.

In 1952 A.T.Puni the first defends the thesis for a doctor's degree in the country on a theme: «The Sport Psychology ». In 1959 Puni publishes the first in this area domestic monograph «The Sketches of psychology of sports ». This book become a reference book for the subsequent generations of sports psychologists. Results of all scientific activity of A.T.Puni are presented in 187 publications. Except for the above-named monograph, the huge influence on development of psychology of sports was rendered with following fundamental works:

  • Psychological preparation for competitions in sport (1969);
  • Psychological bases of strong-willed preparation in sport (1977);
  • Process and system of parts of psychological preparation for competitions in Sports (1979)
  • A problem of the person in psychology of sports (1980).

Within 30 years A.T.Puni headed the chair of sport psychology in the State institute of physical training by P.F.Lesgaft. Under his management scientific officers R.S.Abelskaya, A.G.Rafailovich, D.Y.Bogdanova, E.N.Surkov, B.N.Smirnov, L.R.Egupov, K.A.Skobennikov researched the psychological characteristics of sports activity and different kinds of sports, studied psychological factors of physical, technical and tactical preparations of an athlete. And also the problems of psychological support of an athlete at competitions were solved.

Results of scientifically-methodical work of collective of the chair are generalized in training courses and programs, manuals and textbooks. The big recognition was received with textbooks «Psychology of physical training and sport» (T.T.Dzhamga-rova, A.T.Puni, 1979), «Psychology for technical secondary schools of physical training» (A.T.Puni, 1984) and a practical work «Practical employment on psychology (A.T.Puni, 1977).

A.T.Puni's immeasurably huge contribution to domestic psychology is preparation of known sports psychologists. This is well-known pupils -Y.Y.Kiselyov, G.D. Gorbunov, YU.L.Khanin, N.B.Stam-bulova, etc. - all them have reached greater heights in development of theoretical problems of psychology and in practice of an athlete's psychological support.

A.T.Puni paid the big attention to public work. He acted as the initiator of the organization and the active participant of All-Union meetings and congresses of the Society of psychologists of the USSR. A.T.Puni's scientific works and talent of the lecturer inherent were highly appreciated in the international community of sports psychologists. He was constantly invited to take part in the international conferences and the congresses on psychology of sports. (Because difficulties with trip abroad, he couldn't be present on scientific actions.)

The results of professional work of professor A.T.Puni have been highly estimated on the native land and abroad. A.T.Puni was awarded by the Labour Red Banner, the award of the Red Star, the award of Friendship of People and many medals, letters and diplomas. Also, it has been selected as the honorary member of the European and World federations of sports psychology.

In memory of merits of Avsentiy Tseaserev-ich Puni (1898 - 1985) the decision of Soviet of GDOIFK the chair of psychology was appreciated the name of A.T.Puni in 1992. Every year in December A.T.Puni's birthday is marked by holding the scientific conference.

In 1980th years in Leningrad there are some centers of psychology of sports, leader from which is the chair of psychology of sports in the State institute of Physical Culture of P.F.Lesgaft. Functioning these years under direction of I.P.Volkov the chair completely provides reading rates on the general psychology and psychology of sports for the students, preparing to become coaches and teachers of physical training. The collective of the chair will constantly improve educational process, manuals, practical works are regularly published, active forms of training take root. Scientific interests are concentrated around of various problems:

  • Psychological preparation for competitions (to A.D.Ganyushkin, G.D. Gorbunov, N.P.Kazachenko, O.N.Masur, O.S.Nikitin, Y.E.Ryzhkin, R.M.Zagajnov);
  • Personality of an athlete (D.Y.Bogdanova, G.E.Leevik);
  • Socially-psychological aspects of preparation of the teams (D.Y.Bogdanova, V.I.Rumyantseva, YU.L.Khanin);
  • Ontopsychological problems of physical training and sports (S.I.Galushko, L.V.Kolman, N.B.Stam-bulova, A.V.Stambulov);
  • Psychological reserves of an athlete (T.T.Dzhamgarov, B.N.Smirnov, E.N.Surkov).

Some employees of the chair, as well as other Leningrad psychologists, actively work in structure of the complex scientific groups at national teams of the country by various kinds of sports. G.D. Gorbunov, Y.Y.Kiselyov, YU.L.Khanin, etc. researches successfully introduce scientifically-methodical development in practice of psychological preparation of an athlete to competitions. The demand of sports psychologists-experts grows, they are invited for work with an athlete of high level at responsible competitions, including Olympic Games.

In 1982г. for the first time in domestic history the rate of the sports psychologist is entered at national team of the USSR (swimming). The employee of the chair of psychology G.D.Gorbunov is invited to this post. Having proved as the talented psychologist-expert, subsequently it generalizes and systematizes receptions of psychological influences in view of specificity of problems of sports preparation in the monography «Psychopedagogy of sport» (1986). This book at once became the best seller among psychologists, coaches and athletes. It has been recognized by the best and awarded by the Gold medal at All-Union competition of research works in the field of physical culture and sports, and subsequently was repeatedly translated on other languages. In 2006 «Psychopedagogy of sport» with an author's additions was republished.

This is already 40 years Gennady Dmitrievich Gorbunov helps to the athletes and coaches. He worked with the national teams of USSR and Russia on swimming, track and field, cycling, figure skating, and also worked abroad as the sports psychologist of national team of Philippines. From 1992 to 1998 G.D. Gorbunov managed the chair of psychology of Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Physical Culture by P.F.Lesgaft. These difficult years for the country he managed to keep scientific potential of the chair and involved in psychology of sports the young talented experts.

G.D. Gorbunov always shared the extensive knowledge with colleagues. He read lectures, the master-classes spent both on the native land, and in the USA, England, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Greece, Spain and Finland. Superb owning the art of teaching he becomes the winner of professorial readings at the All-Russia festival in 1996.

As a scientist G.D. Gorbunov specializes in research of problems of self-control in the extremely significant for the person situations. It was published more than 100 works concerning suggestion, hypnosis, bio-energetics, psychotherapy.

The Doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor G.D. Gorbunov is the full member of the Baltic Pedagogical Academy and the academician of the International academy of psychological sciences. Also he was appiciated by the rank of the Honourable worker of higher education of the Russian Federation. Within 12 years G.D. Gorbunov was selected as a member of management of the European Federation of sports psychologists (FEPSAC). Now G.D. Gorbunov successfully works in sports of the maximum achievements and in business-structures. His lectures and seminars-trainings concerning planning personal growth, business dialogue and dialogue in private life, the psychotherapeutic self-help in difficult situations have the big popularity. Versatilly erudite, optimistical and friendly in dialogue G.D. Gorbunov remains the sample of professionalism for colleagues and pupils.

In 1980th years the essential contribution to development of domestic psychology of sports has brought one more employee of the chair of psychology - Jury Lvovich Khanin. He paid the big attention to adjustment of contacts of domestic psychologists with foreign colleagues. Those years because of ideological and political reasons it was interfaced to the certain difficulties. Nevertheless, YU.L.Khanin was possible to adjust cooperation with known experts C.Spilberger, R.Najdiffer, R.Mar-tens, R.Singler, etc. As a result of teamwork books of foreign sports psychologists in Russian have been published, techniques of psychodiagnostics are adapted (for example, widely known technique of Spilberger-Khanin). It were carried out joint researches and were published articles in domestic and foreign magazines. In 1983 under edition of Y.L. Khanin were published an International collection of scientific articles. It was the first in the country on psychology of sports - «Stress and alarm in sport ». As the expert, Y.L.Khanin worked with teams of different kinds of sports (volleyball, basketball). Its scientific interests have been connected with development of problems of interaction of players and problems of mutual relation of an athlete with a coach. Results of researches and methodical recommendations have been published in the mon-ography «Psychology of dialogue in sport» (1980). It was received a high estimation of experts. Now Y.L.Khanin lives and works in Finland.

In 1980th years one more center of psychology was the laboratory of psychology of the Leningrad scientific research institute of physical culture (LSRIPC). Under direction of Y.Y.Kiselyov employees of the laboratory (V.V. Dubenyuk, Y.D.Kulikov, P.V.Zaycev, G.G.Rumyantsev, etc.) carry out scientific researches of a mental condition and personal features of an athlete and also develop a methodical complex of psychodiagnostical actions. Besides employees of laboratory actively and successfully work as experts, rendering the psychological help to members of national teams of Leningrad and the USSR on boat racing, rowing on kayaks and a canoe, track and field, biathlon and cross-countr. Results of scientific and practical work of laboratory of psychology are presented in numerous publications and in the manual «Diagnostics and correction of mental conditions of an athlete» ( P.V.Bundzen, YU.YA.Kiselyov, 1989).

Jury Yakovlevich Kiselyov one of the first in the country has started to work as the psychologist-expert with the athletes. Since 1965, he on a regular basis was invited in national teams of free-style wrestling, boxing, biathlon, jumps on skies from a springboard, track and field, rowing. Y.Y.Kiselyov was engaged in psychological preparation of the athletes for competitions (including the World championships and Olympic Games), and also helped with the decision of the problems connected with fears on trainings. Y.Y.Kiselyov many years successfully combined practical work with scientific and teaching activity. Combining skill of the psychologist and talent of the teacher, he effectively worked with students and post-graduate students. Only officially under its management 11 candidates of psychological and pedagogical sciences were prepared, and still many experts consider he as a Teacher. Y.Y.Kiselyov's scientific interests are focused in the field of a mental condition of an athlete. It was published about 200 works on theoretical and applied questions of conditions of the athletes.

Y.Y.Kiselyov is the author of one of the most popular techniques for diagnostics of a mental condition of the athletes. It is the scale of an interval self-estimation of a condition. It is named «Kiselyov's Thermometer ». Results of the scientific researches and the rich practical experience has generalized in following works: «Win! Reflections and advice of the sports psychologist» (2002) and «Mental readiness of the athletes: ways and means of achievement» (2009). Now Y.Y.Kiselyov lives in Germany, it renders the advisory help to the athletes and coaches and supports professional contacts to colleagues.

In 1982 in Leningrad appears one more center of psychology of sport. It was on the chair of psychology of the Leningrad state university (LSU). The specialization «Sports psychology» was opened.

In connection with development of sports in 1980th years the need for the qualified experts having base psychological formation has increased. Therefore under the initiative and support of Sport-cometee of the USSR Academic council of LSU the decision of opening the given specialization for preparation of the psychologists, capable to work in professional sports was accepted. It was the first specialization not only in the USSR, but also in the Europe where similar curriculums have been opened later five years. The first specialization «Psychology of sports» has been opened in LSU not casually. In Leningrad, one of the leaders in the USSR scientific school on psychology of sports actively functions, and known sports psychologists worked: G.D. Gorbunov, L.Marishchuk, Y.L.Khanin, E.P.Ilyin, YU.YA.Kiselyov etc. Many of them read and supervised over scientific works of the first students of specialization.

The first release of specialization took place in 1985. It is interesting, that some graduates of those years, having parted on different republics of Soviet Union, after disintegration of the USSR, collided with classmates already as competitors of competing teams. Among finishing specialization in the first years: the present dean of the chair of psychology of St.Petersburg State University, associate professor A. V. Shaboltas and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural sciences, the doctor of psychological sciences B.P.Yakovlev, the author of the book «Mental loading in sports» (2002), now managing the chair of psychology in SurSU.

The first head of specialization was the doctor of culturology, ph.D, associate professorVladimir Konstantinovich Safonov. It headed specialization up to 2010, carrying out a management of educational process and research activity of employees. G.B.Suvorov, N.E.Vodopyanova, V.B.Chesnokov, Y.I.Filimonenko and other experts developed the range of problems of training conditions and the sports form, and also created and adapted techniques for diagnostics neurophysiological properties and mental conditions in a view of specificity of sport. A result of teamwork was preparation of the manual «Diagnostics of neurodynamical features» (V.K.Safonov, B.Suvorov, V. B.Chesnokov, 1997). The next years V.K.Safonov has concentrated on research of aggressive behaviour of an athlete. Results of its long-term scientific researches are presented in monographies «Aggression in sports» (2003). Now V.K.Safonov combines work of the teacher of the chair of the general psychology of St.Petersburg State University with practice of psychological support of the athletes specializing track and field, shooting and figure skating.

Except aforesaid centers (the chair of psychology, laboratory of psychology and specialization «Sports psychology» in LSU) in Leningrad also were engaged in problems of psychology of sports E.P.Ilyin. He is the well-known domestic expert (the State pedagogical university by A.I.Herzen) and V.L.Marishchuk (Military institute of physical culture). Owing to their works textbooks, manuals and the practical works necessary for preparation of sports psychologists have been published.

The Leningrad psychologists closely cooperated among themselves. Sports scientific seminars and conferences were regularly spent, joint publications were issued. So, for example, in 1989 E.P.Ilyin, Y.Y.Kiselyov and V.K.Safonov have published the manual «Psychology of sports: modern directions in psychology ». Sports psychologists of Leningrad always actively contacted to colleagues from other cities, on a regular basis took part in All-Union symposiums and scientific conferences.

Psychology of sports in St.-Petersburg

Events of 1990th years, economic and social transformations have changed sports and science and, certainly, were reflected on psychology of sports. For some years specialization «Sports psychology» in St.Petersburg State University has been closed. The laboratory of psychology of LSRIPC has stopped the existence. Some sports psychologists have left to work abroad or send to other branches of psychology. The quantity of publications on problems of psychology of sports has sharply decreased.

Having passed "millstones" of 1990th, sports psychologists of Petersburg all could keep the scientific school and develop new directions of researches, and also adjust process of preparation of young experts in view of modern requirements.

The leading center of psychology of sports of St.-Petersburg still was a chair of psychology by A.T.Puni of national state university of physical training, sports and health by P.F.Lesgaft. With 1992 on the chair was conducted preparation of psy-chologists-consultant. From 1997 preparation of masters under the program «Psychological support of physical training and sports» on internal and on correspondence branches is carried out.

Employees of the chair not only have kept, but also have increased achievements of predecessors, carrying out scientific researches in following directions:

  • Psychology of sports career (N.B.Stambulova, E.E.Khvatskaya, N.L.Ilina. A.D.Cheremnykh);
  • Psychology of the coach (A.N.Nikolaev, I.G.Stanislavskaya, G.V.Soldatova);
  • Psychological factors of selection in sports (L.K. Serova, A.N.Nikolaev);
  • Relations between parents and children in sport (I.G.Stanislavskaya, N.S.Tsikunova);
  • Psychological support in sport, physical culture and an impellent recreation (N.B.Stambulova, Volkov I.P., V.VAndreev, I.G.Stanislavskaya, Vl. V. Andreev, E.E.Khvatskaya, N.S.Tsikunova, T.N.Sultanov, G.V. Soldatova, S.I.Peter, MA.Kuzmin, O.V.Korshunova, M.M.Danilejko, E.V.Izotov and others);
  • Consultation in sport (I.G.Stanislavskaya, V.VAn-dreev, N.S.Tsikunova, I.B.Ivanov);
  • Psychology of management in sport (I.P.Volkov, Volkov O.I., V.B.Myakonkov)
  • Psychological problems of formation of a healthy way of life (и.Н. Nikolaev, E.E.Khvatskaya).

By old tradition of faculty, results of researches actively take root into educational and methodical grants for students, teachers, athletes, coaches and psychologists. The 50 anniversary and the 100 anniversary of Academy by P.F.Lesgaft has noted by release of the dictionary «Psychology of sports in terms, concepts and interdisciplinary communications» (1996).

Wide recognition has received N.B.Stambulova's fundamental manual «psychology of sports career» (1999). The author has devoted the book to the 100 anniversary of the Teacher - A.T.Puni.

Natalia Borisovna Stambulova many years investigated psychological specificity of career of the athletes, analyzed efficiency of domestic and foreign technologies of the psychological help to the athlete on the basis of results of researches and researches of the pupils on the given range of problems (N.I.Ilyin, E.E.Khvatskaya, etc.) She has developed the system of psychological support of the athlete at different stages of sports career. As a whole on psychology of sport N.B.Stambulova has published more than 100 works, and not only in Russian, but also in English, that promoted popularization of domestic psychology of sports abroad. Perfectly owning oratory, she acted with lectures in the USA, England, Germany, Holland, Israel, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania. The doctor of psychological sciences, professor N.B.Stambulova since 1995 to 1999 has the post of a member of Management of the European Federation of psychology of sports (FEPSAC). She held and worked as the assistant to the editor-in-chief of the European year-book on psychology of sport. Since 2001 N.B.Stambulova has become a member of Management of the World Federation of sports psychology, and since 2009 she has become a vice-president. Now N.B.Stambulova lives and works in Sweden, she is the professor of university of Halmstad. N.B.Stambulova maintains professional relations with the colleagues working in Russia. Sympathetic and benevolent, it always willingly advises young experts and addresses to students when comes home.

The head of the chair of 1990 and 2000th years have been I.P.Volkov and А.Н. Nikolaev have made much by way of reorganization of educational process, research and publishing according to modern requirements.

Igor Pavlovich Volkov stood at a rudder of faculty since 1998 to 2006 (and also during 19811992). Under their management have been published essential necessary reader for preparation of experts «Sports psychology in works of domestic experts (2002) and «Sports psychology in works of foreign experts» (together with N.S.Tsikunovoj, 2005), and also «the Practical work on sports psychology» (2002). In 2005 were generalized works of a nonconventional direction for psychology and has presented them in reader «Parapsychology in works of domestic and foreign scientists ». I.P.Volk-ov's scientific interests all over again have been connected with problems of social psychology and psychology of the head, and later with questions of acmeology, valueologies and with the ideas of mobilization of reserve opportunities of the person, methods psychobioenergetics and parapsychology. He is the author over 150 publications, including monographies: «To the head - about the human factor» (1989), «Sports psychology and acmeology of sport» (2001), «the Body and mentality of the person in their unity and contrast» (2002), «Sports acmeology» (2004), «the Body and mentality of the person. On a threshold of the thin world» (2005).

In 1993 Igor Pavlovich Volkov unites colleagues from St.Petersburg State University and State Academy of Physical Culture by P.F.Lesgaft in initiative group which puts forward idea of creation of the Baltic Pedagogical Academy (BPA). Basis BPA has been completed in 1995, professor Volkov has been selected by the first and remains the current president of Academy. Also it is the editor-in-chief of the

Magazine «Bulletin of the Baltic Pedagogical Academy» and the head of section of intensive methods of training. Owing to active scientific and organizing activity Igor Pavlovich Volkov was selected the Full member of the International Academy of Psychological sciences (1995) and the St.-Petersburg academy acmeology (2000). In 2002 he was appropriated a rank the Honored worker of a science of Russia. In his more than intensive professional work Igor Pavlovich Volkov always managed to find time for work with beginning colleagues. Under his management 35 candidate and 7 theses for a doctor's degree on psychological sciences was defended. Now the doctor of psychological sciences, professor Igor Pavlovich Volkov are combined with activity in the set forth above organizations with work of the teacher of the chair of psychology and a management of joint-stock company «intensively training firm " Igoslav ".

Alexey Nikolaevich Nikolaev supervises over the chair of psychology by A.T.Puni since 2006 on the present time. Under his initiative and at direct participation as the editor on the chair since 1996 is published the collection of proceedings «Psychological bases of pedagogical activity ». The opportunity of the publication in the given collection is of great importance not only for post-graduate students and teachers of University, but also for representatives of other educational institutions of St.-Petersburg and Russia. As scientist AN. Nikolaev specializes in the field of psychology of the coach, studies psychological factors of success of pedagogical activity, and also develops a problem of adaptation of an athlete to conditions of competitions on an another's floor. It was published more than 120 scientific works, including the monography «Psychology of the coach in youthful sports» (2005.) А.№ Nikolaev pays the big attention to work with post-graduate students, in its track record of the supervisor of studies 23 master's theses. As practical psychologist А.№ Nikolaev worked in commands: "Zenith" (football), «Spartak» (basketball), and also took part in preparation of the athletes of kayaks and a canoe to the world championships and Olympic Games. As the psychologist-consultant he cooperates with Board of football arbitrators of Russia and teaches on rates and judicial seminars on football and hockey. The doctor of psychological sciences, professor А.Н. Nikolaev is member-correspondent of the Baltic Pedagogical Academy.

The contribution of other employees in effective work of faculty is powerful. The general works form the collection «Practical employment on psychology of pedagogical dialogue» (1999). The high estimation of experts was received Bogdanova's D.Y.with manuals «Entertaining psychology of sports» (1993); Serova L.K. «Psychology of the personality of the athlete» (2007), «Psychological preparation in table tennis» (2011) and «Professional selection in sport» (2011), and also «Branches of psychology» and «the System approach in activity of the psychologist» (I.G.Stanislavskaya, 2011) and " Psychological preparation of the fighter " (V.V.An-dreev. S.I.Peter, R.NApojko, 2009). And N.B.Stambu-lova's and E.E.Khvatskoj's manual «Formation and a healthy way of life» (2000) has been recognized by the best at the first All-Russia competition of educational systems (2001).

Impress the results of work of the chair for all time of its existence: by employees it was published more than three thousand works, including about 70 monographies, on the chair was defended more than 200 candidate and 15 theses for a doctor's degree. High schools of the Russian Federation trusts faculty to spend independent expert appraisals of textbooks and manuals in the field of sport formation. Besides many employees continue traditions of practical work of predecessors, carrying out consultation of coachs and psychological preparation of an athlete of national teams of SPb and Russia: L.K.Serova (table tennis), I.G.Stanislavskaya (mountain bike, boxing), N.S.Tsikunova (tae kwon do), V.V.Andreev and Vl. V. Andreev (free-style wrestling), etc.

The rallied collective of the chair of psychology by A.T.Puni, indefatigably improving educational process, developing new directions of scientific researches and strengthening communications with collectives inside of the country and abroad, promotes maintenance of high authority of the Leningrad-Petersburg scientific school of psychology of sports both in Russia, and behind its limits.

One more center of psychology of sports in St.-Petersburg is specialization «Psychology of sports and physical activity» at faculty of psychology at the St.-Petersburg State University. Restored in 1997, specialization functions on the chair of the general psychology of St.Petersburg State University. Forces of employees of specialization on day time and evening branch realize master's program «Psychology of sports and productive leisure ». With 2010 the head of specialization is associate professor A.E.Lovyagina

Small, but the amicable collective of sports psychologists of the chair of psychology of St.Petersburg State University conducts scientific researches, concentrating around of following problems of self-control of a mental condition in sports:

  • A self-estimation and confidence as mechanisms of activation (D.N. Volkov);
  • optimization of a condition by means of physical training (N.L.I lyin);
  • An individualization of psychological support (A.E.Lovyagina);
  • Influence of behaviour of fans on a condition of the athletes (S.V.Mednikov);
  • A condition of aggression and efficiency of sports activity (V.K.Safonov);
  • Management of experiences in sports-significant situations (E.O.Tikhvin).

Results of scientific researches are presented in articles, the monography «Aggression in sports» (V.K.Safonov, 2003) and methodical grants: «Psychological preparation of sportsmen» (A.E.Lovy-agina, 2002), «Diagnostics of a mental condition at sportsmen» (A.E.Lovyagina, 2003), «Correction of mental functions by means of physical training» (N.L.Ilyin, 2006), «Psychology of experience in sports» (E.O.Tikhvin, 2007), «Psychology and pedagogics of sports» (D.N. Volkov, 2008), «Psychology of sports» (A.E.Lovyagina, 2009). Also employees of specialization are a part of groups of authors of the chair of psychology of the St.Petersburg State University working above creation of textbooks and methodical grants. V.K.Safonov and G.B.Suvorov took part in development of textbooks "Psychology" (1998, 2004), N.L.I lyin has brought the contribution to manuals «the Practical work on psychology of health» (2005) and «Psychology of health of the person» (2011).

Employees of specialization always combined work at university with practical activities: consultation and psychological support of the athletes and teams of a various level. Now V.K.Safonov assists figure skaters of national team of Russia, and D.N. Volkov and S.V.Mednikov work from youth national team of Russia on mountain skiing.

In 2011 counting on employees of specialization, the chair of psychology of St.Petersburg State University has concluded the contract with SRC Balneology and rehabilitation the Russian Federation (of Sochi) about joint projects on maintenance

Research work and to psychological support of the athletes of a reserve of national teams of Russia by winter Olympic Games.

In 2010 Practical work of sports psychologists of St.-Petersburg had joined Agency of Sports Psychology (ASP). With ASP some experts of St.Petersburg

State University, NSU and other practising psychologists of St.-Petersburg cooperate. The agency will organize individual consultations, testings and trainings for all participants of sports activity.

Speaking about psychology of sports of St.-Pe-tersburg, it is necessary to mention activity of known domestic psychologist E.P.Ilyin.

Evgenie Pavlovich Ilyin - the doctor of psychological sciences, the professor of the Russian state pedagogical university it. A.I.Herzen. Within 43 years E.P. Ilyin was engaged in pedagogical and research work. It is the founder of scientific school in the field of the general and differential psychophysiology of labour and sports activity. At his active participation the new direction of psychology of sports - psychology of physical training has been created. E.P.Ilyin's scientific interests are extensive and different: psychology of will, emotion, motives, a mental condition, dialogue, etc. It is difficult to name a theme on which it does not have publications. Diligence and high scientifically-methodical efficiency of the author amazes: from under E.P.Ilyin's feather every year leave, manuals invariable receiving wide recognition. Only for last years were published: «Psychology of will» (2000, 2011), «Psychophysiology of conditions of the person» (2005), «Motivation and motives» (2008), «Psychology of sport» (2008, 2011), «Psychology of dialogue and interpersonal attitudes» (2009), «Psychology of creativity, creativity, endowments» (2009), «the Floor and a gender» (2010), «Psychology of individual distinctions» (2011). For years of work of E.P.Ilyin was published more than 200 works and about 20 manuals and monographies. Also E.P.Ilyin actively engage in pedagogical activity: it prepares 45 candidates of sciences, and in its active of the scientific adviser of 4 protection of theses for a doctor's degree.

For successes teaching and scientific work E.P.Ilyin was awarded a sign «the Honours pupil of education of the USSR ». He was repeatedly noted by letters andgratitudes of the Ministries of Public Education of the USSR. In 2002 to E.P.Ilyin the rank «the Honored worker of a science of the Russian Federation» has been appropriated.

The psychology of sports in St.-Petersburg continues to develop and as scientific discipline, and as applied sphere. Scientific researches and methodical development on actual problems of psychology of sports, physical training and an impellent recreation are conducted in NSU by P.F.Lesgaft, St.Petersburg State University and RSPU by A.I.Herzen. In NSU by P.F.Lesgaft and St.Petersburg State University is carried out preparation of the future experts, masters and post-graduate students. For the majority of sports psychologists a component of professional work is practical work with the athletes and coaches. The alloy of good theoretical preparation and practical experience are regarded as the keystone to success in this trade.

Sports psychologists of St.-Petersburg support professional contacts, take part in scientific conferences, will organize joint scientific seminars and competitions for students and post-graduate students. Discussion of problems of psychology of sports in a format of " the Round table discussion », annually spent within the limits of conference «Ananyev's readings» St.Petersburg State University is especially popular. Tradition became the invitation of colleagues and students to meetings with known experts. It is necessary to note, that representatives of the senior generation - the recognized masters of psychology of sports, never refuse to share experience with young colleagues or to address to students.

For sports psychologists of St.-Petersburg attitudes the cooperation and mutual aid owing to which the educational, scientific and methodical problems connected with psychological support of sport, physical training and productive leisure are successfully realized.

Помимо статей, в нашей спортивной библиотеке вы можете найти много других полезных материалов: спортивную периодику (газеты и журналы), книги о спорте, биографию интересующего вас спортсмена или тренера, словарь спортивных терминов, а также многое другое.

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