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29 Декабря 2018 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Блеер Александр Николаевич, Москвина Н. В., Москвин В. А.

Individual characteristics of voluntary regulation in young athletes taking into account the features of asymmetry

Keywords: brain, asymmetry, lateral features, volitional regulation, sport of higher achievements.

Abstract. The age dynamics of personality's volitional qualities is studied on the example of 45 sportsmen-teenagers of 14-16 years and 100 students of 1-4 courses of sports high school at the age from 18 to 25 years. For the study of strong-willed qualities, the technique of M. Chumakov was used, for the study of asymmetry - the indicators of the «cross-arms» test by A. Luria. It was revealed that the dominance of the left frontal lobe in adolescents and young men is associated with higher rates of volitional regulation.

Ключевые слова: мозг, асимметрии, латеральные особенности, волевая регуляция, спорт высших достижений.

Аннотация. Изучена возрастная динамика волевых качеств на примере 45 спортсменов-подростков 14-16 лет и 100 студентов 1-4 курсов спортивного вуза в возрасте от 18 до 25 лет. Для исследования волевых качеств использовалась методика М.В. Чумакова, для проявлений асимметрии - показатели пробы «перекрест рук» по А.Р. Лурия. Установлено, что доминирование левой лобной доли у подростков и юношей связано с более высокими показателями волевой регуляции.

The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (JPSG), project No. 16-06-50146-a (f)

The relevance of research. Identifying the individual characteristics of arbitrary regulation is undoubtedly relevant in modern sports psychology (especially when preparing highly qualified athletes) [1, 3-6, 10]. Arbitrary regulation of an athlete is always very closely related to such a concept as goal formation. The goal in psychology is defined as something that realizes the human need and acts as an image of the end result of an activity, as a pre-conceivable and anticipated result of conscious activity. The goal can be determined as a conscious image of future results, indirectly related to the motive of O.K. Tikhomirov [8]. And the more complex the goal, the longer the path a person needs to go in his development. The goal in sports is what the athlete's activities are directed at. If there is no goal, then there is no activity, there is no purposeful activity of the subject. On the contrary, goal setting stimulates and programs the activity, it is the mechanism for deploying the appropriate program of behavior. All this requires the formulation of the question of studying the characteristics of volitional regulation, taking into account age-related changes and manifestations of asymmetry.

Research methods. Our experiment was conducted traditionally in the form of group testing. To identify the individual characteristics of volitional regulation, a study was conducted using the method of determining volitional personality traits (VPT) according to M.V. Chumakov [9]. It was attended by 45 teenagers of 14-16 years involved in the fight. Of these, 25 subjects were with right-hand indicators of the "cross-hand" test (right-hand ICHT) according to A.R. Luria [2], which reflects the dominance of the left frontal regions (related to the arbitrary regulation of behavior) and 20 adolescents were with the left indicators of this sample (left ICHT). The study was conducted on the basis of GBU «Sports School № 55 SKIF» of the Department of Physical Culture and Sports of Moscow [3; ten;].

A similar study was also conducted on 100 students of 1-4 courses of a sports university (RSUPESY&T) aged 18 to 25 years. For the study of volitional processes, the method of VPT and the indicators of the "crossing hands" according to A.R. Luria [2]. Thus, the total volume of the studied sample was 145 subjects.

The VPT questionnaire is designed to diagnose the expression of the volitional qualities of a person. The methodology contains 9 scales: "responsibility", "initiative", "determination", "independence", "moderation", "perseverance", "energy", "attentiveness", "purposeful-ness" [9]. Statistical data analysis was performed using non-parametric U - Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.

The results of the study. Comparison of averaged data according to the method of VPT of M.V. Chumakov [9] in the group of teenage athletes showed that the subjects with the right indicators of the "crossing hands" test according to A.R. Luria (compared to the left) show higher numbers on the "responsibility" scales (4.5 p. and 3.9 p., respectively, p <0.05), "initiative" (4.6 p. and 3.9 p., p <0.05), "energy" (6.5 p. and 6.0 p., p <0.03) and on a scale of "purposefulness" (6.2 p. and 5.4 p. accordingly, p <0.05) (table).

Comparison of averaged data according to the method of VPT of M.V. Chumakov [9] for students of a sports university showed that subjects with right-hand ICHT (compared with left-hand ICHT) show higher rates on the "responsibility" scales (4.7 p. and 4.0 p., Respectively, p <0.05) , "Initiative" (4, 9 p. and 4.0 p., P <0.05), "energy" (6.7 p. And 6.1 p., P <0.03) and on a scale of purposefulness "(6.4 p. and 5.6 p., respectively, p <0.05).

Discussion of the study results. In general, according to the results of the study, subjects with left hemispheric dominance reveal higher data on the scale of the VPT methodology, which indicates a greater severity of indices of arbitrary regulation in the first group of individuals. The data obtained correlate with the results of psychodiagnostic studies. Also (according to experiments), it can be stated that as they grow up (as they move from adolescent to older age groups), there is an increase in indicators on the scales of the VPT method.

Findings. The obtained data can be successfully used in solving differential diagnostic problems in sports psychology, including the diagnosis of individual features of the regulatory functions of athletes.

Table - Differences in averages on the scales of the methods of volitional qualities diagnosis (according to M. V. Chumakov) in teenage athletes

VPT method scales

Right hand - RICHT (n=25)

Left hand - LICHT (n=20)

Significance of differences

Responsibility

4,5

3,9*

p<0,05

Initiative

4,6

3,9*

p<0,05

Determination

4,1

3,6

р>0,05

Independence

5,2

4,7

р>0,05

Moderation

6,5

6,1

р>0,05

Perseverance

4,2

4,1

р>0,05

Energy

6,5

6,0*

p<0,03

Attentiveness

4,6

4,3

р>0,05

Purposefulness

6,2

5,4*

p<0,05

The results show the presence of asymmetry of the third (regulatory) block of the brain according to A.R. Luria. This position is also confirmed by the data of psychodiagnostic studies of teenagers and young men with different lateral features [3, 10] and previously established data that the partial dominance of the left frontal lobe (more often in males) is associated with higher rates of goal formation and volitional regulation [4, 5, 10]. We have previously conducted piloting studies show that for girls and women, these indicators are less specific (more "blurred"), i.e. they are not always confirmed by statistical processing. The results can be used practically to diagnose the individual characteristics of arbitrary regulation in sports psychology when training highly qualified athletes and to predict human behavior in extreme situations [3-7]. They can also be used when reading a course in sports psychophysiology (in the section "volitional regulation of behavior") [5].

Literature

  1. Ilyin, E.P. Psychology of sports / E.P. Ilyin. - SPb.: Peter, 2009. - 352 p.
  2. Luria, A.R. Basis of neuropsychology / A.R. Luria. - M.: Moscow state University, 1973. - 374 p.
  3. Moskvin, V.A. Individual features of strong-willed regulation in adolescent athletes / V.A. Moskvin, N.V. Moskvina // Sportivnyj psiholog. - 2016. - № 3 (42). - P. 52-57.
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  6. Moskvin, V.A. Psychophysiological aspects of emotional-volitional preparation for extreme situations (on the example of martial arts) / V.A. Moskvin, N.V. Moskvina / / Ekstremalnaya deyatel'nost ' cheloveka. - 2016. - No. 1 (38). - P. 30-33.
  7. Pilkevich, A.V. Training free dropping dropping from the helicopter during rescue operations in conditions of plain / A.V. Pilkevich, A.V. Failures, Y.V. Baykovskiy, N.V. Pilkevich // Ekstremalnaya deyatel'nost ' cheloveka. - 2016. - No. 1 (38). - P. 49-53.
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Литература

  1. Ильин, Е.П. Психология спорта / Е.П. Ильин. - СПб.: Питер, 2009. - 352 с.
  2. Лурия, А.Р. Основы нейропсихологии / А.Р. Лурия. - М.: МГУ, 1973. - 374 с.
  3. Москвин, В.А. Индивидуальные особенности волевой регуляции у спортсменов-подростков / В.А. Москвин, Н.В. Москвина // Спортивный психолог. - 2016. - № 3 (42). - С. 52-57.
  4. Москвин, В.А. Межполушарные асимметрии и индивидуальные различия человека / В.А. Москвин, Н.В. Москвина. - М.: Смысл, 2011. - 368 с. – ISBN 978-5-89357-303-9.
  5. Москвин, В.А. Проблема волевой регуляции спортсменов в курсе подготовки спортивных психологов / В.А. Москвин, Н.В. Москвина // Proc. Intern. res.-pract. conference for workers of science and education «Education & Science - 2016». Part 3. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Science and Innovation Center Publ., - 2016. - pp. 9-12. doi: 10.18411/d-2016-047
  6. Москвин, В.А. Психофизиологические аспекты эмоционально-волевой подготовки к экстремальным ситуациям (на примере восточных единоборств) / В.А. Москвин, Н.В. Москвина // Экстремальная деятельность человека. - 2016. - № 1 (38). - С. 30-33.
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  8. Тихомиров, О.К. Психология мышления: Учебное пособие / О.К. Тихомиров. - М.: Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1984. - 272 с.
  9. Чумаков, М.В. Диагностика волевых особенностей личности / М.В. Чумаков // Вопросы психологии. - 2006. - № 1. - С. 169-178.
  10. Moskvin, V.A. Asymmetry and individual charachteristics of strong-willed regulation teenage athletes / V.A. Moskvin, N.V. Moskvina // Austrian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. - 2016. - № 5-6. - P. 22-24. doi: 10.20534/AJH-16-5.6-22-24.

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