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01 Июля 2008 Журнал "FIBA Assist Magazine"

Виды спорта: Баскетбол

Рубрики: Профессиональный спорт

Автор: Knauf Hans Peter

How Are Sports Floors Monitored?

How Are Sports Floors Monitored?

How Are Sports Floors Monitored?

I. HISTORY

According to the available literature, the first area-elastic sprung floor was installed for the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. Consisting of two layers of crossed bars on levelled supports and a top layer of solid parquet, this was the first attempt to construct an indoor sports floor.

In April 1965, the first standard for flooring was published in Germany. The German DIN (Deutsches Institut fur Normung) standard was then used in the ensuing years when testing indoor sports floors. This standard was also used for the later development of the EN (European Norm) 14904 standard.

The following characteristics were first considered for DIN-standard flooring:

  • elasticity (non-elastic sports floors may cause injuries to the sportsmen);
  • unbreakable;
  • splinter-proof;
  • sound and heat insulation;
  • foot stability;
  • sliding property (not too slippery, not too sticky);
  • wearing resistance.

Additionally it was stated that cleaning and maintenance should be effortless. The next edition for floor standards was published in July 1975 as DIN 18032 part 1. This version provided standards for surface regularity, resilience, loading capacity, ball rebound, humidity, and heat insulation. Several versions were introduced over the years, with the fully revised standard called pre-standard DIN V 18032-2:2001-04 accepted as the valid version in 1994.

The three basic functions were covered in this version. Protective function stands for the two major issues:

  • Shock Absorption (reducing the load on the human body when falling on the sports floor).
  • Sliding Properties (prevent uncontrolled sliding).

Sports function means that different sports can be played on the floor.

Technical function covers all the properties of a sports floor regarding static, falling and rolling loads (rollers, wheels), as well as wearing resistance.

II. CONSTRUCTION

In the pre-standard mentioned before (DIN V 18032-2:2001-04), the indoor sports floor constructions are categorized according to their construction principles by description of the effects when loaded and defined by their area deflections (see figure 1).

a) Area-elastic sports floor
Resilient, rigid sports floor with the characteristic property to form a wide-spread deflection when loaded. This leads to two construction principles:

  • area-elastic sports floor with an elastic construction (wooden sprung floor);
  • area-elastic sports floor with an elastic layer (mostly foam).

b) Point-elastic sports floor
Resilient, soft sports floor with the characteristic property to form a narrow deflection on top of the surface.

c) Combined-elastic sports floor
A combination of the two above floors.
As per the area-elastic sports floors, there are two construction principles:

  • combined-elastic sports floor with an elastic construction (wooden sprung floor);
  • combined-elastic sports floor with an elastic layer (mostly foam).

d) Mixed-elastic sports floor
Point-elastic sports floor with an area-elastic element.

III. EUROPE

In 1988, it was decided that in the European Standardization process, indoor sports floors were handled as building products and should therefore be dealt within a working group. To avoid coverage of synthetic floors only, CEN was asked to establish a separate Technical Committee (TC) for sports surfaces in general (indoor/outdoor). A TC was established in Manchester in 1989. In opposition to other sports floors, indoor sports floors became partly mandated for CE- marking. The essential requirements regarding the European Building Directive became valid. The outcome of all the discussions was the creation of the EN 14904 standard, published in April 2006.

IV. NORTH AMERICA

The situation in North America is different than in Europe due to non-existing standards (now in work). However, some American companies have had their products tested according to the DIN standard. The first testing activities took place at the end of the 1980s on area-elastic (hardwood) sports floors with solid maple strips. Most of the systems of the different suppliers seemed to be quite similar with constructions with rubber shock pads or bars (some anchored to the sub floor).

Due to the stiffness of the (mainly maple) strips, however, it was very difficult for these constructions to come within the DIN requirements regarding the property area deflection.

V. FIBA – OFFICIAL BASKETBALL RULES – BASKETBALL EQUIPMENT

Valid since October 1, 2006, FIBA published the revised Official Basketball Rules – Basketball Equipment with new Level 1 requirements for permanent (section 15.3) and mobile (15.4) wooden floorings.

As testing procedures, the appropriate EN standards are mentioned whereas the requirements for permanent wooden floors are mainly based on DIN-requirements; some are more restraining, such as vertical ball behaviour and some are less regulated, such as area deflection and sliding properties. In addition, conditions for some properties and requirements regarding uniformity were fixed so that floors fully complying with these FIBA requirements had to be engineered on the highest level.

Помимо статей, в нашей спортивной библиотеке вы можете найти много других полезных материалов: спортивную периодику (газеты и журналы), книги о спорте, биографию интересующего вас спортсмена или тренера, словарь спортивных терминов, а также многое другое.

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