Keywords: the comfort zone, training area, external comfort, internal training zone comfort zone comfort foreign competition, domestic competition comfort zone precompetitive discomfort.
Abstract. Based on the analysis of sports activities and the use of an interdisciplinary approach identified and described the comfort zone of sports activities. Two basic comfort zones and one discomfort zone are defined. The basic ones include zones of training and competitive comfort, which in turn are divided into zones of external and internal comfort, and the stage of pre-competition preparation is presented in the zone of discomfort. Disclosed substantial components zones of comfort sporting activities.
Ключевые слова: зона комфорта, зона внешнего тренировочного комфорта, зона внутреннего тренировочного комфорта, зона внешнего соревновательного комфорта, зона внутреннего соревновательного комфорта, зона предсоревновательного дискомфорта.
Аннотация. На основе анализа спортивной деятельности и использования междисциплинарного подхода выявлены и описаны зоны комфорта спортивной деятельности. Определены две базовые зоны комфорта и одна зона дискомфорта. К базовым относятся зоны тренировочного и соревновательного комфорта, которые в свою очередь делятся на зоны внешнего и внутреннего комфорта, а этап предсоревновательной подготовки представлен в зоне дискомфорта. Раскрыты содержательные компоненты зон комфорта спортивной деятельности.
Relevance. The desire of a sportsman to achieve high results, mastery of sportsmanship, preparation for competitions, performance at high-level competitions with full dedication is determined by many factors, among which the main place is occupied by the athlete's motivation.
Motivation is the most important mechanism of any activity that performs the functions of goal-setting, planning necessary for the activity of an athlete. A high level of motivation is relevant at different stages of the development of a sports career.
Much research has been devoted to the study of motivation, both in the field of general psychology and in the psychology of sports [1, 3, 4], both domestic and foreign scientists agree that motivation in sports depends on both internal and external determinants.
In the scientific literature and in practical work, the attention of researchers usually focuses on the definition and use of factors of constructive motivation, that is, on the motivation of activity that is useful for achieving success. At the same time, factors that determine undesirable, harmful or even destructive behavior for an athlete, contrary to goals and values, remain little studied. The causes of destructive motivation in sports are usually considered in a general form and are not studied in detail, meanwhile, it is their identification, systematization, detailed analysis and consideration in practical work that are the most important condition for increasing the effectiveness of sports activities.
In recent years, quite comfortable conditions have been created for practicing sports, especially such a kind of sport as football has succeeded. At the same time, we see that comfortable conditions are not a reason for achieving high results.
The purpose of this article is precisely the identification of comfort zones in sports activities and their analysis.
The term "comfort zone" is considered as a complex of conditions of external and internal environment that are most favorable for the subject, including psychological factors. Thus, the comfort zone can be considered as an established world, to which a person has become accustomed, where everything is stable and predictable. Being in such a state is pleasant, but not always being in such a state can succeed .
Being in the comfort zone, a person stops in the development on certain positions and achievements, and does not want to achieve anything further, since this person is satisfied with everything. It would seem that this is really good, as stability indicates the reliability of the situation. But sportsmen who decided to engage in professional sports should make every effort to achieve high results. One of the main tasks of the coach is to solve long-term tasks of training sportsmen in professional sports. This task is quite complicated, since the training of highly qualified sportsmen is based on taking into account a number of features such as: ideological, social psychological, psychological, neuropsychological, anatomical, physiological and genetic. Despite this, the coach has a relationship with an integral person, for which it is necessary to create favorable, comfortable conditions in the process of achieving a high result. Each person is unique in his own way and in order to achieve the desired result he forms his own individual comfort zone, independent of others.
Why does a person go into a comfort zone while playing sports?
The comfort zone in sports is an area of the necessary favorable conditions of the external and internal environment for sports, which includes psychological factors.
Sport is a rather complicated kind of activity, which consists of such activities as training and competitive, on this basis, we can distinguish the comfort zone of the training activity and the comfort zone of the competitive activity. Moreover, each of these zones has zones of internal and external comfort. The figure shows a diagram of the comfort zones of a sports activity.
In recent years, in our country, we can see the rapid commercialization of sports, which makes it possible for athletes to earn big money a vivid proof of this is football.
It is possible that everything that surrounds a sportsman can be attributed to the zone of external comfort of training activities, namely, a set of such necessary conditions as financing of athletes, equipment of the stadium, arena, gym, climatic, temperature conditions, humidity, light, planning of sports loads in the training process, the influence of parents, teachers, trainers, attendants, officials and much more.
Figure - Comfort zones for sports activities
Why, doing sports, a person gets into the zone of inner comfort?
It is known that after training sessions a person experiences a surge of vigor and strength, usually this condition is described by a lengthy phrase: "physical activity stimulates the production of happiness hormones - endorphins" [7, 9]. David J. Linden's work  showed that modern science cannot yet answer exactly the question of exactly which biochemical changes in the brain are generated by physical exertion, but some experiments have shown that training is accompanied by an increased release of brain opioids. These substances play an important role in the formation of emotions, affection and motivation.
The transition to the zone of competitive comfort is carried out through the zone of discomfort. In order to realize the goal and enter the zone of competitive comfort, the athlete must pass through the zone of discomfort. How does this zone differ from the zone of training and competitive comfort?
The precompetitive discomfort zone is a transition zone, which is associated with increased stress, since the sportsman must completely restructure the mode of life and activity, focusing on those climatic and temporal features in which the competition will take place. In the area of precompetitive discomfort, the mode of work performed also changes, since at this stage of preparation, the central place is given to full modeling of the upcoming competitions, which involves the holistic reproduction of competitive exercises, competition mode, and its external conditions .
The main component of sports activities is competition, which aims to achieve results. The goal of the competition is to achieve the best result, regardless of the level of fitness of the sportsman.
The zone of competitive comfort (Figure) has a zone of external and internal comfort, since the achievement of a personal result can be influenced by the athlete's stay in these zones. In the event that the zone of external discomfort at the pre-competitive stage is identical to the zone of external competitive comfort, then the athlete in this zone is likely to have no difficulty and he will feel comfort in this zone. If, in the zone of external discomfort, the training conditions were far from the conditions of the competition, then the sportsman may experience problems in the external zone of competitive comfort. The competition area (the factor of "own" and "foreign" field), geographical and climatic position of the competition venue (altitude of the location of the competition above sea level, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, level of solar radiation, hourly belt, etc.), equipment of venues and attitude of the audience
Getting into the zone of internal competitive comfort, the sportsman displays vivid emotional experiences, high internal mobilization. Due to the high intensity of the competition, a person experiences even stronger physical and psychological stress. The thrill experienced by the sportsman during the competition, the associated emotional overload, stress and anxiety contribute to excessive adrenaline production, which is comparable to the extravaganza of pleasures of the addict. This hormone helps not only to mobilize and get additional physical and psychological capabilities to overcome the situations that have arisen, but also gives the athlete the opportunity [9, 10] to feel that surge of energy to cope with all sorts of difficulties and to feel like a superman for a while conditions of competitive activity, which is unlikely to cope in the normal state.
This article is mainly based on assumptions and personal experience with sportsmen. Research on the problem of studying comfort zones in sports has practically not been done, although work in this direction is not only of scientific interest, but is also quite relevant, since many sportsmen who are in comfort zones stop increasing athletic performance and changing behavior.
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