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01 Октября 2010 Журнал "World Journal of Sport Sciences"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Mohammed A.

Effect of Using E-book and Programmed Paper Book on Some Learning Aspects of Physical Education Lesson (Comparative Study)

Abstract: This study aimed to search the effect of using the e-book and the programmed printed book (paper or traditional book) on learning teaching formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson, Therefore to answer on this important question; Could we teach by electronic curriculums instead of these printed paper to face the progressive education technology?. This study was carried on sample of 48 female students by percentage of 58.54% out of 82 girls in first class, Physical Education Faculty, Menoufiya University in 2009/2010. The sample was divided into two groups: the first experimental group used the printed or paper book (n=24). The second experimental group used e-book (n=24). The experimental work was carried out through 10 weeks, twice a week for 60 minutes (unit time). The results of statistical analysis refered that both of printed book and e-book have a positive effect on teaching Formations and Configurations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson. while the e-book has more effective and positive influence on learning comparing with the printed book, therefore, we can teach without the printed book by only using the e-book in learning the teaching formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercises. It's recommended to use e-book during learning the specific skills in this research. It has a positive effect on skillful learning and gives opportunity of quality learning. Also, it's recommended to transfer the printed curriculum to electronic curriculum that has best effect on educational process.

Key words:E-book • Traditional book • E-curriculum • Papered curriculum • E-publishing • Papered  Publishing


The current age, which described as the age of communications revolution and knowledge explosion, witnesses scientific and technological progress dramatically in all fields especially in education field which has more importance than before. This importance is due to the rapid development in various life fields and the achievements of serious human attempts in various types of new science [1, 2].

During globalization age, there's a great interest from Arab writers in electronic culture, Many of them have directed to electronic publishing while in the opposite side, others attacked this electronic culture and digital book, Great arguments appeared between the e-publish and the printed publishment (traditional). But, now days we live the electronic age that due to the appearance of electronic writing. Other technologies that we can't expect now will appear soon. It's difficult, as Bill Gates said, to look backward. We should look forward to know where we are going to. The future will be for e-publishment, not for the printed publishment. Anyone can't deal with this electronic publishing will lose everything. The printed book, in future, may be old fashion and the museums will be its place instead of libraries. This matter may be impossible for other people to happen. But it isn't strange to happen if all old and new books are published electronically. The printed book will disappear automatically. The writings had been developed from be on stones and boards to be on bones and leather. People of Stones age couldn't expect that writing on stone would disappear completely. If anyone told that, all people would argue him hard in the same way we witness nowadays with electronic book. As writings had disappeared from stones and board then bones and leather, it also may disappear from paper. The electronic cultures will take its role [3].

The electronic book is considered one of the programmed education types that appeared at the end of twentieth century (1990). It's considered one of modern developments in systems of passage treatments devices especially nowadays. That witness progress we can't ignore on e-book level. It's possible to collect not only tens but also hundred of printed books and publish then in one e-book [4].

The idea of e-book returned to early nineties. Its owner was "Bob Staien" who compared between reading through computer and through printed book. He reached to a result that reading through electronic device had many qualities over reading from traditional book. Of these qualities: electronic book is less cost for reader than printed book; all copies are always available on internet and any body can get then at any time. Also, information can be required and received immediately by electronic media. The auther has the opportunity to publish his book by himself and send it to the website of the publisher to overcome all problems and obstacles which face the traditional writer; get rid of the quantitative restrictions of the editions; decreasing the cost of printing and distribution and keeping the environment clean out of the pollution of waste papers. On the other side, the idea was attacked at all because computer is heavier than traditional book and for other defects that have been overcome by inventor who invented lap tops and mobiles or cell phones [5, 6]. Also, there are over 2 million free books available for download as of August 2009. Mobile availability of e-books may be provided for users with a mobile data connection, so that these e-books need not be stored on the device. An e-book can be offered indefinitely, without ever going • out of print* [7].

For portability and Storage, an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. If space is at a premium, such as in a backpack or at home, it can be an advantage that an e-book collection takes up little room or weight.For language Accessibility, E-book websites can include the ability to translate books into many different languages, making the works available to speakers of languages not covered by printed translations use Text-to-speech software to read the text aloud, search for key terms, find definitions, or allow highlighting bookmarking and annotation. Devices that utilize E Ink can imitate the look and ease of readability of a printed work while consuming very little power, allowing continuous reading for weeks at time.Concerning costs, while an e-book reader costs much more than one book, the electronic texts are generally cheaper. Moreover, a great share of books are available free of charge. For example, all fiction from before the year 1900 is in the public domain. Also, libraries lend more current e-book titles for limited times, free samples are available of many publications and there are other lending models being piloted as well. E-books can be printed for less than the price of traditional new books using new on-demand book printers [8].

E-Reader depends on the device; an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many newer readers have the ability to display motion, enlarge or change fonts [9].

Security: depending on possible digital rights management, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor.

Distribution: compared to the printed publishings, it is cheaper and easier for authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed version [10, 11].

Availability: an e-book can be purchased or borrowed, downloaded and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one has to go to a bookshop or library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery.

Environmental Concerns- The production of e-books does not consume paper, ink, etc. Printed books use 3 times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce albeit they do not require a machine for use[12,13].

Publishing e-book destroys and breaks borders. It also prevents monopolization and confiscation which aren't available in the printed book [14].

One of the advantages of e-book that we can require and deliver it immediately by electronic media. It's also compact and easy in carrying and moving. It also increase the ability of controlling the show with digital characteristic to record the notes and transfer it to a readable text with rapid searching for information and transferring the text to sound. The text can be read in dark places with low cost in distributed [6].

On the other side, writers and critics think that e-books will increase in the future by increasing the technology every day. E-book industry will spread instead of printed book for many reasons. Of these reasons; the massive size of the printed book and its high cost in printing either in employment or paper or ink or others [5, 15, 16].

The Oxford Dictionary of English defines the e-book as "an electronic version of a printed book,"[17, 18] but e-books can and do exist without any print equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some cell phones (mobile) can also be used to read e-books [8].

Also, Electronic book can be defined as a term which describes similar text of book but in a digital way to be shown on computer screen. Any encyclopedia, stored on laser disk, is considered e-book. E-book is a digital form of written text. Therefore, it can be read on computer or mobile [6].

Also, researchers can put definition to the programmed printed book. The procedural definition; dividing the material content to small units and including it in programmed form that contains many frameworks to form program is shown in paper programmed. And transferring the written text of this printed book to digital form by using the PDF format through Adobe Acrobat programme (for e-book) to be read on computer screen (Fig. 1) or any mobile. This allows learner to learn according his ability and evaluate himself continuously through the feedback to make sure of the achieving the purpose.

Researchers used the e-book and programmed paper book (One attached) to propose the suggested programme with great efforts aimed to use the modern technologies and employing them in education field. The current thoughts desire, according to these technologies, to propose the educational material according to the modern philosophies. Now learner has an active role in this process, He is no longer recipient but he is responsible for his learning. So he must be active in all learning situations, seek, drill and deal with various education subjects [19, 20].

Hence the idea of this research that aimed to implement comparative study between e-book and programmed printed book to know the effect of both of them in learning physical exercises and body positions during PE lesson. Consequently to answer the important question if we could teach without e-book as we approach the second decade of 21 which described as space age and information technology.


This study has been carried out on a sample of 48 female students of first class in the Faculty of Physical Education, Menoufiya University 2009/2010 by percentage 58.54% of total 82 girls.

The sample has been divided into two groups. The first experimental group used the programmed printed book N=24, the second experimental group used the electronic book N=24. 24 computers (in the college computer lab) have been used. 24 CDs of electronic book were used for the second group and 24 programmed printed books were used for the first group. The work was performed through 10 weeks, twice a week and the educational unit was 60 minutes.

Steps of Preparing Book (E-book and Printed Book):

The scientific steps of preparing the printed book had been followed to identify the general aims of the printed, the content, organizing the educational material of the book, designing the programmed book in its first form... and other steps. these steps were in Zaghloul repertory [21]. The content of printed book had been transferred to digital form by using PDF format through CD to show the printed book and read it by computer screen [22-24].

Application and Implementation

First Group (Printed Book): First studing the content of printed book for 10 minutes,then implementing the determined skills under research (Evaluation Form; teaching Formations and Configurations, body positions and physical exercises) for (50) minutes.

Second Group (E-Book): First studing the content of e-book for 10 minutes from computer screen and CDs, then implementing the determined skills for (50) minutes.

Scientific Transactions

Validity: Table1 shows the Correlation Coefficient significant at the 0.05 level of the research sample (pilot study) in variables: age, the determined skills under research(teaching formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercises).

Table 2 shows the correlation coefficient significant at the 0.05 level of research sample (pilot study).

Reliability: Table 3 shows the reliability coefficient significant at the 0.05 level of the research sample (pilot study).

Preparation of Evaluation Form: The form had been prepared to know the level of Formations, body positions and physical exercises on sample of exercise study before and after the programme. The curriculum's content was analysed on girls of first year [25] to determine the formations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson. Beside studying one of specialized scientific repertory that dealt with physical exercises and others [26]. The special phrases in evaluation form were 33 phrases (Attach i).

Measurements of the Baseline Study Sample: Homogeneity: Table 4 shows the matching of the research sample (Homogeneity, Normal distribution or equinoctial distribution) in variables: (age - physical exercises and others).

Attach 1: Students' evaluation form in teaching Formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercise

Fig.1: model of research program (E-book)

Table 1: internal consistency between the Phrases and Axis

Axis I

Axis II:

Axis II:

teaching formations and Configurations

body positions and physical exercises

body positions and physical exercises


Correlation Coefficient


Correlation Coefficient


Correlation Coefficient









































































Table 2: Correlation coefficient between the axis and total



Correlation Coefficient

Axis I: teaching Formations and Configurations


Axis II: body positions and physical exercises


Value of spreadsheet at the level of significance

0.05 = 0.632

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.


Table 3: Reliability Coefficient by using Spearman-Brown formula. Split half method. between Individual, Dual phrases.


Reliability Coefficient

Axis I: teaching formations and configurations


Axis II: body positions and physical exercises




Parity: Table 5 shows the parity between two groups (printed book, e-book) by using t-test in variables (age and physical exercises and others).

Statistical Analysis: Use the Statistical Pacakage for the Social Science (SPSS / PC) for a statistical treatment (statistical analysis), Was used in the following (the values are expressed): Mean, Std. Deviation (+/- SD), Median, Skewness and Correlation Coefficient. Comparisons between initial (pre) and final (post) measurement in each group were analyzed by t test.


Table 6 shows the presence of significant statistical differences between the average initial and final measurement for the two groups in the determined skills under research. And improve in average final measurement of the research sample.

Average Pre-post Measurements of Printed Book in Favor of Post Measurements: Improving in the determined skills implementation for this group. This was because of depending on traditional book and depending the students on them selves in acquiring the skills through one of education material of programmed printed book with the continous feedback by using the immediate strengthening of teaching formations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson. This progress returned to the amount of information which students have form the similar types of programmed book, beside photos and illustrations diagrams. This, in turn, lead to the best imaginary by using the printed book and consequently developing the students with immediate feedback that help in bulding and developing their motor imagination [21, 27, 28].

Table 4: Mean median, std. deviation and skewness of variables (age, physical exercises and others)

Variables mean




Age (y) 17.313 teaching formations and configurations (Score) 4.625 body positions and physical exercises (Score) 5.188 Total (Score) 9.813



- 0.241

Table 5: t-test between two groups (printed book, e-book) in the measurements tribal research

Groups Printed book N=24

E-book N=24

Variables Mean




T test

Age (y) 17.333 teaching Formations and Configurations (Score) 4.708 body positions and physical exercises (Score) 5.208 Total (Score) 9.917

0.482 0.955 2.105 2.412


0.464 0.977 1.810 2.293


Table 6: T-test to two research groups (printed book, e-book)

initial (pre) measurement

final (post) measurement


Variables Groups N





T test

teaching formations and configurations (Score) Printed book 24 body positions and physical exercises (Score) Total (Score)

teaching formations and configurations (Score) E-book 24 body positions and physical exercises (Score) Total (Score)

4.708 5.208 9.917 4.542 5.167 9.708

0.955 2.105 2.412 0.977 1.810 2.293

29.417 65.625 95.042 32.833 74.042 106.880

3.106 5.570 6.944 2.599 7.129 8.584

42.918* 48.692* 58.655* 48.875* 45.254* 51.786*

Value of "t" spreadsheet at the level of significance 0.05 = 1.684 (2 groups. One-tailed.) * shows significant at the 0.05 level.

Average Pre-post Measurements for E-book Group in Favor of Post Measurements Average: Improving in the determined skills implementation (teaching formations, body positions and physical exercises) in this group because of depending on e-book that lead to improvement and progress in these skills. There was depending on using computer screen in learning. Consequently, there were positive effects on physical exercises and others because of attractiveness and effectiveness of the computer. Besides providing the feedback for right implementation which helps students to understand these formations and achieve the best implementation.

This agree with Hayword [29] pointed to that using the technologies (as in PDF and computer screen) helped in evaluating and presenting the material well in comparing to scientific material that be presented in other forms.

The reason for this progress was through the reaction between girls and computer as students choose the material and controlled the sequence of subjects and time. The e-book gives the opportunity of learning according to student's abilities.

This prove that e-book had positive effects on learning exercises, body positions and formations in PE lesson because of effectiveness and attractiveness of computer generally and e-reading especially. This proves that e-reading for printed book increased the suspense element for students and encourage them to do the best thing without boring.

Through discussion the results; it's clear that e-book is more effective than printed book. This encourage teachers who responsible fpr teaching to teach with electronic curriculum in teaching formations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson. So, the appearance of e-writing instead of traditional is essential and important.


The main deduction of the search that we can teach with electronic book only and without using the printed book in learning the teaching formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson.


• Traditional book has positive effect in learning teaching formations and physical exercises.

• E-book has positive effect in in learning the teaching formations and configurations, body positions and physical exercises in PE lesson.

• E-book has more positive and effective role in learning comparing with printed book. So, we can teach without printed book and satisfy with e-book in learning.


• Using e-book in education process because of it positive effect on learning skills.

• Transferring printed curriculum to e- curriculums to face the progress of education technologies.

• Implementing researches and similar studies on different skills by using e-book and recognizing the best methods that improve the level of skills.

• Using the electronic technologies like (multimedia -hypermedia - hypertext... .etc) in all subjects to convoy the progressive educational technologies.


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