Keywords: sports activities, the magnitude of the mismatch, self-esteem, level of aspirations, motivation, anxiety, self-regulation, self-organization.
Abstract. Global trend is becoming a tremendous growth of interest in the sport of the highest achievements, the Olympic sport and elite athletes. This article describes an empirical study of the relationship between the levels of self-esteem and the claims of highly skilled athletes, covering various interrelations between the mismatch of these measurements of self-esteem and personal characteristics. The data obtained by us in the study underscore the significance of the ratio of self-assessment and claims as important variables of successful performance at competitions.
Ключевые слова: спортивная деятельность, величина рассогласования, самооценка, уровень притязаний, мотивация, тревожность, саморегуляция, самоорганизация.
Аннотация. Общемировой тенденцией становится грандиозный рост интереса к спорту высших достижений, олимпийскому спорту, к высококвалифицированным спортсменам. В данной статье описано эмпирическое исследование соотношения уровней самооценки и притязаний высококвалифицированных спортсменов, охватывающее разные взаимосвязи рассогласования указанных измерений самооценки с личностными особенностями. Данные, полученные нами в исследовании, подчеркивают значимость соотношения оценки себя и притязаний в качестве важных переменных успешного выступления на соревнованиях.
The relevance of research. Victory and defeat in sports are always accompanied by a subjective assessment, which is the result of achieving the goal, motivation, level of attraction and certain personal characteristics, it regulates the behavior of a person and determines his goals. Self-esteem is one of the significant personal factors that influence the efficiency and reliability of an athlete's professional activity .
Existing studies do not fully disclose this phenomenon, since they take into account self-esteem and level of attraction as separate formations [3, 4, 6], in some cases even identical with each other . This is due to the need to ensure success in sports.
The goal is to investigate the factors that cause a mismatch between self-esteem and the level of aspirations, in fact limiting the growth of athletic achievements among highly qualified athletes.
Organization of the research. The study was done at the training bases of the Russian Olympic Center, 101 sportsmen from different sports, aged from 17 to 28 years old, who are members of the national teams, and have sports qualifications MS and MIS of Russia.
Research methods. The scale of the interval assessment of sports athletes preparedness "Thermometer" Yu. Ya. Kiselev ; the Big Five questionnaires (Costa, McCrae, 1985) and SSS (Sensation, Seeking, Scale) M. Zakerman, (adaptation by A. G. Shmelev, 2010); the questionnaire "The level of subjective control" (LSK) E.F. Bazhina, E.A. Golinkina, A.M. Etkind (1993); questionnaire "The motives of sports activities" (MSA) E. A. Kalinina; a version of method "Motor test" of Schwarzlander, V.I. Buyanova and I.B. Buyanova; psycho-consultative conversation, allowing to determine the arguments of the demonstrated positions of self-esteem; expert assessment revealing the level of sports preparedness.
The results of the research. Mismatch is a term used to denote the phenomena of discrepancy, or the divergence of self-esteem and the level of claims in various parameters of measurements (level, adequacy, etc.) [1, 2]. Therefore, there are various types of combinations of self-assessment and claims, due to the divergence of these parameters in terms of level and degree of adequacy, in particular, it is recognized that the situation of mismatch between these parameters on the one hand, can speed up the process of selforganiza-ion, forcing a person to mobilize all capabilities. And, on the other hand, excessive divergence of self-esteem and level of aspirations is a situation of intrapersonal conflict and can harm the personality, causing discomfort, an increase in the level of tension  and, as a result, a decrease in the productivity of activity.
Comparison of medial indicators according to Kiselev's methodology in a sample of sportsmen showed the presence of 4 groups, differing in the magnitude of the divergence between self-esteem of sports preparedness and the claims of sportsmen . Thus, the strongest divergence of parameters was found in the fourth group (32.50 cu), and the weakest (7.25 cu) in the first group (Table).
We assumed that certain psychological indicators correspond to the factors associated with the growth of sportsmen's skills, so the consistency of self-esteem parameters and the level of aspirations often leads to an increase in emotional stability, the ability to perform self-regulation in activity based on internal criteria, and a reverse dilution in the form of a significant breakdown of the parameters studied to the motivational complex in the form of increased anxiety, deterioration in the quality of self-organization activities.
Using factor analysis, the signs that make up the model of the self-assessment component of highly skilled athletes, taking into account the typology of the divergence of the parameters of the specified component, were identified. Namely, significant factors were selected according to the success and failure of highly skilled athletes. In total, four models of the self-assessment component have been built, taking into account the individual psychological characteristics of the personality of highly qualified sportsmen.
In this article, it is reasonable to present the results obtained for one of the most significant models - "strong divergence model", as the obtained factors describe the determination of the transition from success to failure (the growth of results at the irst stage of the study, and their regression after two years), as well as parameters accompanying the decrease in the performance of a highly qualified sportsman.
Thus, in group 4 with a strong divergence of self-assessment parameters, three significant factors were identified with a total completeness of factorization of 67.286% (Table, Figure).
Among the factors being the basis of this model, factor 1 - "Determination of transition experience from success - to failure" reflects a decline in the implementation of competitive activity over the study period, and includes low levels of self-assessment of psychological readiness and self-assessment of overall physical readiness, as well as a decrease in achievement motivation goals The backbone feature is "a decrease in the success of activities" (r = 0.806; with p <0.001).
Table - Distribution of respondents by divergence of self-esteem and level of claims
The parameters divergence (у.е.) value (X)
Figure - The overall structure of the factor model of strong divergence of self-esteem and the level of claims, the total variance of factors is indicated in brackets
Selected factor 2 - "Dissociative complex of parameters of individual mental formations" Triad of risk "", allows to conclude that the system-forming feature "Anxiety" (r = 0.684; with p <0.001) combined with an external locus of control in achieving success and a strong divergence of self-esteem and claims.
Factor 3. The combination of two signs in one factor can be considered as behavioral features: intolerance of uniformity and domination of motivation of encouragement, and be interpreted as «Striving for fast (accelerated) implementation, "Fast reward", a system-forming feature - "intolerance of uniformity" (r = 0.768; at p <0.001).
The available data allows us to suggest that one of the possible causes of the mismatch of self-esteem and the level of claims are some individual psychological personality characteristics, because with an increase in the divergence of this formation, anxiety increases, the achievement motivation decreases, and the locus of control changes.
On the actual material the relationship of the presented complex and the success of a highly qualified sportsman are shown. We believe that such destructive changes in the structure of the sportsman's personality are predictors of adverse changes for realizing the potential of an athlete in competitive conditions.
Conclusion. The conducted research contributes to the semantic understanding of the phenomenon of self-esteem, where it is assumed that the structure of self-esteem and aspirations is connected by semantic connections, which also determine the regulation of the activity itself. In addition, the important characteristics of the discrepancy of the described components are distinguished, having a different structure in assessing themselves and setting the level of claims. The results obtained rather work in support of the hypothesis about the relationship of self-esteem and claims to the success / failure of sports activities.
They also contribute to clarifying the understanding of the phenomenon of self-esteem and the level of claims.
- Borozdina, L.V. Claims and self-esteem / L.V. Borozdina, L. Vidinska // Vestn. Mosk. unta. Ser. 14. Psihologiya. - 1986. - № 3. - P. 21-30.
- Borozdina, L.V. Increase of the index of anxiety at different levels of self-assessment and claims / L.V. Borozdina, E.A. Zaluchenova // Voprosy psihologii. - 1993. - № 4. - P. 104-113.
- Voronkina, L.V. Study of self-esteem of athletes in connection with the implementation of competitive results / L.V. Voronkina // Izvestiya TulGU. Fizicheskaya kul'tura. Sport. - 2015. - № 4. - P. 82-87.
- Goshek, V. Level of aspiration and its role in the psychological preparation of the athlete / V. Goshek // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoj kul'tury. - 1972. - № I, - P. 36-42.
- Kiselev, Yu.Ya. Methods of psychodiagnostics in sport / Yu.Ya. Kiselev. - M.: Prosveshchenie. - 1990. - 192 p.
- Lipiridi, I.N. The self-esteem of athletes and its correction by means of selfknowledge: dis. ... kand. psihol. nauk / I.N. Lipiridi. - SPb., 2008 - 153 p.
- Serebryakova, E.A. Self-confidence and the conditions of its formation at students / E.A. Serebryakova // Uchen. zap. Tambovskogo ped. in-ta. - 1956. - Vyp. 10. - P. 41-73.
- Sidorov, K.R. Phenomenon of discrepancy between the levels of self-esteem and claims in early youth: dis. ... kand. psihol. nauk: 19.00.01 / Sidorov Konstantin Rudol'fovich. - M., 2007. - 158 p.
- Strekalovskaya, I.N. Self-assessment of athletes and its correction by means of selfknowledge: dis. ... kand. psihol. nauk: 13.00.04 / I.N. Strekalovskaya. - SPb., 2005. - 152 p.
- Palij, V.I. Experimental analysis of the correlation of self-esteem and ambitions of elite athletes / V.I. Palij, V.A. Sohlikova // Vestnik Kostromskogo un-ta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psihologiya. - 2017. - T. 23. - № 1. - P. 63-68.
- Бороздина, Л.В. Притязания и самооценка / Л.В. Бороздина, Л. Видинска // Вестн. Моск. унта. Сер. 14. Психология. - 1986. - № 3. - С. 21-30.
- Бороздина, Л.В. Увеличение индекса тревожности при расхождении уровней самооценки и притязаний / Л.В. Бороздина, Е.А. Залученова // Вопросы психологии. - 1993. - № 4. - С. 104-113.
- Воронкина, Л.В. Исследование самооценки спортсменов в связи с реализацией соревновательных результатов / Л.В. Воронкина // Известия ТулГУ. Физическая культура. Спорт. - 2015. - № 4. - С. 82-87.
- Гошек, В. Уровень притязаний и его роль в психологической подготовке спортсмена / В. Гошек // Теория и практика физической культуры. - 1972. - № I, - С. 36-42.
- Киселев, Ю.Я. Методики психодиагностики в спорте / Ю.Я. Киселев. - М.: Просвещение. - 1990. - 192 с.
- Липириди, И.Н. Самооценка спортсменов и ее коррекция средствами самопознания: дис. ... канд. психол. наук / И.Н. Липириди. - СПб., 2008 - 153 с.
- Серебрякова, Е.А. Уверенность в себе и условия ее формирования у школьников / Е.А. Серебрякова // Учен. зап. Тамбовского пед. ин-та. - 1956. - Вып. 10. - С. 41-73.
- Сидоров, К.Р. Феномен несоответствия уровней самооценки и притязаний в ранней юности: дис. ... канд. психол. наук: 19.00.01 / Сидоров Константин Рудольфович. - М., 2007. - 158 с.
- Стрекаловская, И.Н. Самооценка спортсменов и ее коррекция средствами самопознания: дис. ... канд. психол. наук: 13.00.04 / И.Н. Стрекаловская. - СПб., 2005. - 152 с.
- Палий, В.И. Экспериментальный анализ соотношения самооценки и притязаний высококвалифицированных спортсменов / В.И. Палий, В.А. Сохликова // Вестник Костромского ун-та. Серия: Педагогика. Психология. - 2017. - Т. 23. - № 1. - С. 63-68.