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31 Декабря 2017 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Байковский Юрий Викторович

Determinant factors of extreme sports activities

Keywords: extreme sports activity, level of extremality, risk factors, psychological qualities.

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the main factors that determine the extreme nature of sports activity, the study of psychological characteristics of various types of extreme activity and the determination of the influence of various factors on the level of extreme sports activity.

One of the most important problems in this area is the lack of knowledge of the various factors of high psychological stress in sports of extreme orientation.

The experiment involved 192 people aged 18 to 22 years:

  • Group No. 1 - 98 students of the GCOLIFK, of various sports specializations;
  • group number 2 - 94 students of the Civil Protection Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Measures and Civil Defense of Russia.

The study was done in May 2016 on three factors that determine the level of extremism of various sports (sports disciplines and extreme sports activities):

  1. Evaluation of the most significant psychological qualities characterizing athletes, extremals.
  2. Risk factors that determine the extreme nature of the sport and sports activities.
  3. Classification of social groups of people engaged in various types of extreme activities.

As a result of the study, the main factors determining the extremity of sports activity were identified.

Ключевые слова: экстремальная спортивная деятельность, уровень экстремальности, факторы риска, психологические качества.

Аннотация. Статья посвящена исследованию основных факторов, определяющих экстремальность спортивной деятельности, изучению психологических особенностей различных видов экстремальной деятельности и определению влияния различных факторов на уровень экстремальности спортивной деятельности.

Одна из важнейших проблем в этой области - неизученность различных факторов высокой психологической нагрузки в видах спорта экстремальной направленности. В эксперименте участвовали 192 человека в возрасте от 18 до 22 лет:

  • группа №1 - 98 студентов ГЦОЛИФК, различных спортивных специализаций;
  • группа №2 - 94 студента Академии гражданской защиты МЧС и ГО России.

Исследование проводилось в мае 2016 года по трем факторам, определяющим уровень экстремальности различных видов спорта (спортивных дисциплин и экстремальных видов спортивной деятельности):

  1. Оценка наиболее значимых психологических качеств характеризующих спортсменов-экстремалов.
  2. Факторы риска, определяющие экстремальность вида спорта и спортивной деятельности.
  3. Классификация социальных групп людей, занимающихся различными видами экстремальной деятельности.

В результате проведенного исследования, были выявлены основные факторы, определяющие экстремальность спортивной деятельности.

Introduction. The relevance of the research is explained by the insufficiently developed theoretical and scientific-methodological foundations for providing psychological security for extreme activities and for classifying extreme sports in terms of the degree of extremality. One of the most important problems in this area is the lack of knowledge about the various factors of high psychological stress in extreme sport [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

We can analyze the factors that determine the extreme nature of the activity and risk according to different grounds. There are» foreseen» factors - those that we can clearly identify, measure and implement the forecast of the degree of their impact on the success of the activity, and there are «unforeseen» ones that we cannot measure, or cannot predict the probability of their occurrence. System-forming safety factors of human activities dealing with extreme activities are [1, 2, 3]: a) objective risk factors or environmental factors; b) factors of uncertainty of activity; c) the factor of accidents in the sport or the rate of accidents in extreme human activities.

The sensitivity of people to perceiving risk depends both on external and internal factors. Internal psychological risk factors in extreme activities are subjective, and represent a variety of variations. The evaluation of risk factors depends on the personal qualities of the athlete, the risk assessment based on his experience and qualifications, age of the younger, mature or older age, assessing his own capabilities and status at the moment.

The purpose of the study is to study the psychological features of various types of extreme activities (sports disciplines and kinds of sport) and to determine the influence of various factors on the level of extreme sports activity.

Subjects: 192 people aged 18 to 22 years. Group number 1 - 98 students of the GCOLIFK, various sports specializations (young men of 40 people, girls - 58 people). Group 2 - 94 students of the Civil Protection Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Civil Defense of Russia (all young men). The study was done in May 2016.

Results. We conducted a study on three factors that determine the extreme level of various sports (sports disciplines and extreme sports activities).

1. Evaluation of the most significant psychological qualities that characterize extreme sportsmen.

The results of our study (Figure 1) almost completely refute the opinion formed by the media, that extreme athletes are people of an antisocial orientation, characterized by negative personal qualities. Our study showed that young people consider extreme athletes to be different: courage (6.9 points out of 10), determination (6 points), adequacy of behavior (5.5), caution (4.8), will to win (4, 5), discipline (4.2), responsibility (4.2), independence (2.6), initiative, the need for leadership and the need for recognition. The first negative quality characteristic of extreme sportsmen was noted only from the 10th place (Figure 1): stubbornness (2.2 points out of 10), recklessness (1.8), ambition (1.8), adventurism (1, 5), aggressiveness (0.8), anxiety, selfishness, carelessness, vanity.

Based on the respondents answers results of the group №1 (ГЦОЛИФК) and №2 (АГЗ МЧС), the calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient (Table 1) shows a statistically significant correlation dependence.

2. Risk factors that determine the extreme nature of the sport and sports activities

We conducted a preliminary survey of respondents [1, 2], which allowed us to identify six main risk factors that determine the extremality of activity (Figure 2).

a) according to respondents, the most significant factor determining the extreme activity of an athlete is the presence of objective external risk factors, such as, for example, avalanches and rock falls in mountaineering, or the presence of a rigid contact in martial arts. This factor is estimated at 8.2 points (on a 10-point scale);

b) in the second place by importance (7.8 points) is a high level of uncertainty of activity and the presence of unstandart, unplanned situations. This factor determines the unpreparedness of the athlete to cover trouble-free performance of actions, for example, in mountaineering, if the athlete does not know all the dangers that he must overcome, he cannot always arrange a reliable insurance, and the combatant

Courage Determination Adequacy Caution Volition to win Discipline Responsibility Independence Luckiness Stubbornness Recklessness Initiative Ambitiousness Adventurism Relaxedness Emotionality Aggressiveness Imagination Need for leadership Anxiety Egoism Carelessness Need for recognition Vanity is not always ready for an unconventional behavior of the rival;

1.png

Figure 1 - The most significant psychological qualities of extreme sportsman

c) the next most important (6.8 points) is the inability to provide timely medical assistance to the athlete in case of the accident. This factor largely determines the high level of extreme nature of all sports associated with the natural environment (mountain and expeditionary sports, underwater and parachute sports, etc.).

d) an official ban on engaging in this type of activity on the part of the state (illegal activity) is also quite significant in the system of forming the level of activity risk (5.6 points). Since the form of activity is officially prohibited, non-formally trained athletes are forced to conduct it secretly, illegally, without providing the necessary security equipment (on unequipped areas, without medical and technical security services, etc.);

Table 1 - Results of the correlation analysis of the respondents of group 1 and number 2 on the factor of significant psychological qualities of an extreme sportsman

N

p

0,05

0,01

23

0,42

0,53

e) publicity of activities and increased attention of the mass media to this type of activity (broadcast on television, publications in the press, the Internet, etc.) is the fifth most significant factor of extremity (4.5 points). This factor is the reason that extreme athletes are ready to take risks when there is a danger to life. The principle - « Company in distress makes trouble less « - works.

f) we were surprised by the low rating of the factor of the athlete's death possibility, the possibility of getting a serious injury and the associated high psychological risk (1.8 points). Strangely enough, in the assessment of professionals [5,6], this is the factor that determines the level of riskiness of human activity. But we explain such an assessment by the specifics of our respondents - these are not professional sportsmen or professional rescuers, but student youth, some of whom are engaged in sports, but not at the highest level. Therefore, this factor cannot use extreme activities with respect to its risks

The calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient (Table 2) between the results of the answers on this issue of the respondents of group 1 (GTSOLIFK) and №.2 (ASP MES) shows a statistically significant correlation dependence.

3. Classification of social groups of people engaged in various types of extreme activities

2.png

Figure 2 - The most significant risk factors that determine the extreme nature of the activity

Extreme activities involved not only athletes, but also representatives of other social groups (Figure 3). And it is belonging to a particular social group that largely determines the characteristics of a person's risky behavior. Earlier, we conducted a classification of social groups engaged in extreme activities in the mountains [1, 2]. In this work, we identified six social groups associated with extreme sports activities:

a) the most risky social group (7.96 out of 10) are professional rescuers (representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations), which provide safety and rescue people engaged in risky activities. This category of people engaged in the most strictly regulated by the society activities, which is associated with a very high level of risk. The same group includes representatives of the public rescue teams of mountaineers and mountain tourists - these are professional athletes (instructors, guides) performing the most dangerous operations in the mountains, caves, mines;

b) the second most important social risk group (7.83 points) are representatives of dangerous, risky professions. These are representatives of: security agencies (border guards, representatives of the FSB, Ministry of the Interior, mountain arrows, etc.), divers, miners, aviation and railway operators, geologists, polar explorers, industrial alpinists (builders of hydroelectric power stations, high-altitude power lines, ski bases) Well, in our time, probably, this category includes politicians, bankers and bandits. And of course this social group includes highly skilled professionals;

Table 2 - Results of the correlation analysis of the respondents of group 1 and number 2 on significant risk factors that determine the extreme nature of the activity

N

p

0,05

0,01

6

0,85

c) the next in importance (7.7 points) were high-qualified sportsmen engaged in extreme sports activities (mountain, underwater, connected with auto-, motorcycle, bicycle, combat, etc.). Since sport is aimed at achieving athletes the highest results at the limit of physical and mental capabilities of a person, as a rule, representatives of this social group are more often than others in the extreme and critical risk areas;

d) the fourth social group, these are informal people (6.7 points) engaged in officially not registered types of extreme sports activities (freeriders, freecrlimbers, streetracers, baseclimbers, basejumpers, monumentclimbers, roofers, hookers, parkourists, etc.). This group includes people engaged in anyone and nothing regulated activities (without rules and restrictions). Representatives of this social group are extremely poorly regulated by society. Their activities are often represented by informal youth associations that oppose themselves to sports organizations (federations, associations and unions in sports) and public associations (political, commercial, mass media), as well as representatives of official authorities (police, traffic police, etc.)..

e) unorganized tourists, traveling independently to dangerous areas of the planet («savages»). These are people who travel the world on their own (6.3 points). Their activities are poorly regulated, which makes the representatives of this social group extremely dangerous. Among them are people who are prepared for this activity, as a rule, former athletes, and people who do not represent the dangers with which they are facing;

3.png

Figure 3 - The most extreme social groups

e) the least extreme group are organized tourists, traveling to dangerous areas of the world through travel agencies (5.5 points). It includes: tourists, holidaymakers at ski and tourist bases (outdoor activities), travelers (outdoor), people making trekking, city tourists (ethno, cultural and economic tourists), etc

Representatives of each group have their own, and quite predictable, level of extremism, accidents, specific features and ways of organizing activities. And accordingly for each group specific methods and technologies of pedagogical influences should be applied to ensure the safety of activities.

The calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient (Table 3) between the results of the answers on this issue of the respondents of group No.1 (GTSOLIFK) and No.2 (AGZ MES) shows a statistically significant correlation dependence.

Conclusion. As a result of the study, the main factors determining the extremity of sports activity were identified.

Table 3 - The results of the correlation analysis of the respondents of groups Nos. 1 and 2 depending on the social group

N

p

0,05

0,01

6

0,85

Literature

  1. Baykovsky, Yu. V. Pedagogical system for ensuring human security in extreme conditions of the mountain environment: dis. ... dr. ped. Sciences / Baykovskiy Yury Viktorovich; Ros. state. Un. of phys. culture, sport, youth and tourism (GTSOLIFK). - M., 2011. - 401 p.
  2. Baikovsky, Yu.V. System approach in the creation of the pedagogical concept of ensuring the safety of human activities in extreme environmental conditions / Yu. V. Baykovsky, A. N. Bleer // Theory and Practice of Applied and Extreme Sports. - 2013. - №4. - P. 67-71.
  3. Baykovsky, Yu. V. Terminology of the extreme. encyclopedic dictionary of extreme sports activities / Yu. V. Baykovsky, PP Zakharov, AI Martynov, AV Pilkevich, DV Provalov, etc. // Authors-compiler Yu. V.. Baykovsky. - M.: Vertical; TVT Division, 2014. - 292 p.
  4. Baykovsky, Yu. V. Human activities and ensuring its safety in extreme conditions of the mountain environment: monograph / Yu. V. Baykovsky. - М.: GTSOLIFK, 2016. - 189 с.
  5. Pilkevich, A. V. Multilevel system of training specialists on extreme activities in mountainous conditions / AV Pilkevich, Yu. V. Baikovsky // Scientific and educational problems of civil protection (scientific journal) Academy of Civil Protection of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia. - 2013. - №.4 (29). - P. 42-44.
  6. Shmigaleva, T.S. Individual and psychological features of athletes who choose extreme activities / T.S. Shmigaleva, Yu. V. Baykovsky // Theory and practice of applied and extreme sports. - 2012. - №. 1 (23). - P. 25-28.

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