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29 Декабря 2018 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Гандбол

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Амир Буссаха, М.В. Жийяр

Conflict analysis of interpersonal relations in the team of highly qualified handball players

Keywords: the level of interpersonal conflicts, the coefficient of group and individual conflict, interpersonal conflict, handballers of high qualification.

Abstract. Cohesion and a favorable socio-psychological climate is conducive to the growth of sports in the team. In this work, we have looked levels of conflict in interpersonal relations of handballers for an adequate analysis of the psychosocial climate and in the woman's team.

Ключевые слова: уровень межличностной конфликтности, коэффициент групповой и индивидуальной конфликтности, межличностные конфликты, гандболистки высокой квалификации.

Аннотация. Сплочённость и благоприятный социально-психологический климат способствуют повышению спортивного результата в команде. В данной работе был изучен уровень конфликтности в межличностных отношениях спортсменок для адекватного анализа психосоциального климата в женской команде по гандболу.

The relevance of research. Associated with the fact that conflicts are an integral part of vital human activity, it is necessary to give it as full attention as other psychological aspects of everyday life. Realizing that a conflict can lead to undesirable consequences, it is necessary to minimize possible damage, cause this phenomenon and benefit from it [5].

According to the definition of the concept generally accepted for sociology of sport, sport is a social phenomenon that includes competitive activity itself, preparation for it, and specific interpersonal relations and behavioral norms arising in the process of this activity. Accordingly, in essence, sports activities are inevitably associated with special relationships, including conflicts. Modern sport places high demands on the physical and mental abilities of a person. Training and competitive process is often accompanied by the emergence of conflict situations, passing either into direct, open, conflicting interaction, or into a hidden or intrapersonal conflict [2].

The close and effective interaction of teammates in sports and gaming activities is impossible in the context of a destructively pronounced conflict interaction [3,4]. Acute long-term conflicts between athletes destroy the system of business and personal relationships, negatively color the interactions between group members, and ultimately lead to a decrease in athletic performance.

The object of the study was informal and interpersonal relations in the team of highly qualified handball players.

The subject of the study was the nature of informal and interpersonal relations in the level of cohesion and well-being of relationships in the women's handball team.

Hypothesis of the study: we proceeded from the assumption that the diagnosis and analysis of informal and interpersonal relations of highly skilled handball players will help identify the level of cohesion and well-being in a team as a basis for the formation of an optimal psychological climate.

The purpose of the study was to identify the characteristics of the level of cohesion and well-being of relationships, as well as the nature of interpersonal and informal relationships in the women's handball team.

Objectives of the study:

  1. To determine the level of interpersonal conflict in a team of highly qualified handball players;
  2. To identify the nature and characteristics of interpersonal and informal relationships in the women's handball team;
  3. To determine the level of cohesion and well-being of relationships in the women's handball team.

Table 1 - Group Conflict Level Indicators

The frequency of conflict in group

J (IC.)

Very often

often

Rarely

no

Σ

Р1(%)

Σ

Σ

Σ

Р4(%)

0

0,00

3

16,67

9

50,00

0

0,00

-0,28


Note: JCI - is a conflict frequency index; P1, P2, P3, P4 are the percentages of answers according to the first, second, third and fourth answer variants.

Table 2 - Indicators of individual conflict handball players

The frequency of the player's conflict according to the group

Subgr. By confl. level (К)

Ver

y often

Often

Rarely

No

J(CI)

Σ

Р1(%)

Σ

Р2 (%)

Σ

Р3(%)

Σ

Р4(%)

1

5

27,78

8

44,44

5

27,78

0

0,00

-0,66

К1

2

1

5,56

7

38,89

10

55,56

0

0,00

-0,50

3

0

0,00

9

50,00

7

38,89

2

11,11

-0,35

4

0

0,00

0

0,00

16

88,89

2

11,11

-0,18

К2

5

0

0,00

2

11,11

13

72,22

3

16,67

-0,15

6

0

0,00

5

27,78

8

44,44

5

27,78

-0,05

7

0

0,00

4

22,22

9

50,00

5

27,78

-0,03

8

0

0,00

3

16,67

9

50,00

6

33,33

0,06

9

0

0,00

1

5,56

10

55,56

7

38,89

0,17

10

0

0,00

0

0,00

11

61,11

7

38,89

0,19

11

0

0,00

0

0,00

10

55,56

8

44,44

0,26

12

0

0,00

0

0,00

8

44,44

10

55,56

0,41

13

0

0,00

1

5,56

5

27,78

12

66,67

0,54

14

0

0,00

0

0,00

4

22,22

14

77,78

0,70

К3

15

0

0,00

1

5,56

2

11,11

15

83,33

0,76

16

0

0,00

0

0,00

3

16,67

15

83,33

0,78

17

0

0,00

0

0,00

2

11,11

16

88,89

0,85

18

0

0,00

0

0,00

2

11,11

16

88,89

0,85

Table 3 - Conflictogram

Research methods. To solve the tasks we used the following research methods:

  • Analysis and synthesis of literary sources
  • Pedagogical observation
  • Questioning
  • Socio-psychological methods for determining interpersonal conflict (in particular: "Methods for determining the level of interpersonal conflict" (B. A. Babayan),
  • Methods of mathematical statistics (conflict indices, median (Me), scope of variation (R); conflict frequency index (J CI) for the team as a whole and for each player separately).

The results of the study and their discussion.

One of the most important characteristics of relationships in a sports team is the level (or degree) of conflict, as an individual athlete, and in the sports group as a whole.

The index of group conflict (J CI) of the women's handball team (calculated by the method of B. A. Babayan) was -0,42 (with a range of JCI from -1.0 to 1.0), which indicates the level of group conflict is above average. The average Conflict Indicator of each player of the group Me (J CI) = 0.2 indicates that the values of the coefficient of individual conflict among the players as a whole are at the level of the average value (which does not coincide with the value of the group coefficient (-0.42) of the conflict given above).

However, among team players, the coefficient of individual conflict (Table 2) ranges from -0.66 to 0.85, hence the conflict between players varies considerably within the same group.

In this regard, we divided the players by the level of individual conflict into 3 subgroups: the first (athletes with conflicts are slightly above the average) - 3 athletes (16.66% of all group members); the second (sportswomen with conflicts of a considerably average level) - 10 players (55.55% of the members of the whole group); the third (athletes with low conflicts) - 5 players (27.77%) from members of the whole group.

To determine the nature of interpersonal relationships in the women's handball team, we used the method of conflict measurement developed by I.Suleimanov and A.P.Dmitriev.

In accordance with the requirements for the implementation of this methodology, we have developed conflict-resolution selection criteria (questions) for athletes of the group:

1) "Who do you prefer to live in one room at a training camp?

2) "With whom you do not want to live in the same room at the training camp?

Based on the presented selection criteria, conflict matrices were compiled (Table 3).

On the conflict matrix, two groups are strongly pronounced. The first one is stable (marked on the conflictogram with different colors, players No. 8,9,11,13,14,15,16,17 and 18) and is ahead of the second group in terms of formation (marked with yellow color on the conflictogram, players No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12), since there are ten mutual elections in the first grouping, but not in the second grouping.

Based on the conflict matrices, conflictograms were compiled, reflecting these two groups and their interpersonal and informal relationship handball players in the team.

We see a clash between the two factions; where the players of the first group belonged to other teams before, and the players of the second group belonged to this team. This is explained by the number of negative unidirectional choices by the athletes of the first group to the athletes of the second group.

The second group undergoes a stage of formation between veterans and young people, and at the moment there is no desire to establish new informal ties.

In the first grouping we observe mutual and positive unidirectional elections between its members.

Then, on the basis of the conflict matrix, the group (Table 4) and individual (Table 5) conflict indices were calculated.

The reciprocity index (RI) for the whole team, reflecting the level of cohesion in the informal sphere of relations, was 0.036 - a low figure. Group Conflict Index (GCI) is the "reverse" reciprocity index. Throughout the whole group, it is equal to 0, which suggests that the desire of the group members to establish informal relations with each other is low.

The reciprocity index in the irst group was 0.14, and the reciprocity index in the second group is 0.

CONFLICT ANALYSIS OF INTERPERSONAL.png

Table 4 - Group conflict indexes

К1

К2

К3

1

2

3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14

15

16

17

18

GCEI

1

2,1

6,6

3,17

RI

0,00

0,055

0,045

0,036

GCI

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

Table 5 - Personal Conflict Indices

К1

К2

К3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

GCS

0,29

0,12

0,18

0,24

0,18

0,24

0,12

0,12

0,29

0,18

0,24

0,06

0,24

0,18

0,18

0,24

0,18

0,12

PCS

0,00

0,00

0,06

0,18

0,12

0,12

0,06

0,12

0,29

0,18

0,24

0,00

0,24

0,18

0,18

0,24

0,18

0,12

NCS

0,29

0,12

0,12

0,06

0,06

0,12

0,06

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,06

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

CEI

0,18

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,18

0,00

0,00

0,24

0,24

0,00

0,24

0,00

0,35

0,24

0,41

0,47

0,41

0,41

IPCE

0,18

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,18

0,00

0,00

0,24

0,24

0,00

0,24

0,00

0,24

0,24

0,24

0,24

0,24

0,24

NCEI

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,12

0,00

0,18

0,24

0,18

0,18

GCRI

0,47

0,12

0,18

0,24

0,35

0,24

0,12

0,35

0,53

0,18

0,47

0,06

0,59

0,41

0,59

0,71

0,59

0,53

Table 6 - Conflict Status of Team Members

Group name

№ players

Stars

PCS ≥ m + 2σ = 0,31

Preffered

PCS > m + 1σ = 0,22

16,13,11,9

Accepted

PCS = m - 1σ = 0,052

18,17,15,14,12,6,5,4,3

Isolated (unaccepted)

PCS < m - 1σ = 0,052

1,2,12

Neglected

PCS < m - 2σ = -0,03

Sigma (σ) - quadratic deviation.

The findings suggest that the informal cohesion of the first group is three times higher than the general group and significantly higher than the cohesion of the second group.

The Group Conflict Expansiveness Index (GCEI) characterizes the desire of group members to establish informal relationships with other group members. IGCE of the first group was 5.7, and the second group - 0.75. This indicates that the athletes of the first group are more eager to establish informal relations than the second group.

GCEI for the group as a whole is equal to 3.17, for the first subgroup it is 1, for the second - 2.1, for the third - 6.6 (subgroups on the level of individual conflict). These results also show that the most conflicting members of the group, to a lesser extent than less conflicted athletes, tend to establish new informal connections. Such connections are most important for the third, least conflicting subgroup in terms of the level of individual conflict.

The Conflict Expansiveness Index (CEI), which characterizes the attitude of a member of a group to its other members, shows that the most conflicting members of a group, to a lesser extent than less conflicted athletes, tend to establish new informal relationships.

The index of positive conflict expansiveness (IPCE), characterizes the positive attitude of a member of the group to its other members. He also confirms that sportswomen in the first group are more inclined to support positive informal relations than sportswomen in the second grouping.

It can also be noted that the IPCE indicator for all players of the first subgroup is equal to 0.24, which is higher than the index of the second subgroup equal to 0. Thus, there is a high level of group cohesion in the first subgroup and a low level in the second subgroup.

It should be noted that handball players with low levels of conflict have the highest indices of the negative conflict expansiveness index (NCEI). And at the same time, handball players with high levels of conflict have the highest rates of negative conflict status (NCS), determined according to the "negative" conflict criteria. Therefore, we can talk about the existence of low cohesion in the team.

The positive conflict status (PCS), which is determined according to the conflict measurement criteria with a positive orientation, makes it possible to identify certain status positions (conflict status status) of the members of the group: "stars", preferred, adopted, isolated and neglected.

The identified status groups allow us to determine the level of well-being of relationships (LWBR). This concept was introduced by J.L. Kolominsky, who proposed to distinguish three grades of LWBR: high, medium, low.

I gradation - "stars" (Table 6), II gradation - "preferred", III gradation - "accepted", IV gradation - "isolated", and V gradation - "neglected".

Thus, the number of athletes in status groups, where the index (PCS) is lower, exceeds the number of athletes in status groups with a relatively high index.

I + II <III + IV + V

Consequently, the level of welfare of the relationship (LWBR) in a team is low.

Findings.

Conflictometric analysis of interpersonal relationships in a team of highly qualified handball players suggests the following:

  • the level of group conflict is above average (moderate), which is characterized by the presence of a conflict situation among individual handball players;
  • the average indicator of individual conflict among handball players is generally at a level below the average, which indicates a level of conflict at below average;
  • group cohesion (in terms of RI) - low;
  • team athletes are divided into two weakly interacting groups, with one of them being dominant, more cohesive;
  • athletes of the first group are more eager to establish informal relations than the second group (in terms of the GCEI);
  • the most conflicting members of the group, to a lesser extent than the less conflicting athletes, strive to establish new informal relationships (in terms of the CEI);
  • sportswomen of the first group are more inclined in supporting positive informal relations than sportswomen in the second grouping;
  • The level of well-being of relationships (LWBR) in the team for the period under study is low.

The findings suggest the need for pedagogical correction of interpersonal relations of female athletes and the development of a system of psychological and pedagogical measures to increase group cohesion and prevent the onset of acute conflict situations.

Literature

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Литература

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