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01 Января 2010 Журнал "FIBA Assist Magazine"

Виды спорта: Баскетбол

Рубрики: Профессиональный спорт

Автор: Sepulcri Luigi

Body Control For The Individual Fundamentals

Body Control For The Individual Fundamentals

Body Control For The Individual Fundamentals

PREMISE

Basketball is a game of skill and athletic ability. The best players are those who move quickly, have great endurance, and are able to keep their balance on both offense and defense. High-level basketball demands that players be able to switch between forward, backward, lateral, and vertical movements. Balance is a must. Optimal balance depends on building the core muscles of the body. Core strength training aims to target all the muscles groups that stabilize the spine and pelvis. The core region consists of more than just the abdominal muscles. These muscle groups are critical for the transfer of energy from large to small body parts during basketball. The muscles of the trunk and torso stabilize the spine, pelvis, and shoulder. From this solid, balanced base the legs can be moved powerfully and under control. Core strength training differs from many traditional weight-training routines by working both the lower back and abdominals in unison. The same is true for the upper and lower body. All athletic movements incorporate the core in some way. Very few muscle groups are isolated. Instead the whole body works as a unit and core strength training replicates this. What are the benefits of core strength training to the basketball player?

  • Greater efficiency of movement. t Improved body control and balance.
  • Increased power output from both the core musculature and peripheral muscles such as the shoulders, arms, and legs.
  • Reduced risk of injury (the core muscles act as shock absorbers after jumps and rebounds)
  • Improved balance and stability.
  • Improved basketball performance.

Since the muscles of the trunk and torso stabilize the spine from the pelvis to the neck and shoulder, they allow the transfer of powerful movements of the arms and legs. All powerful movements originate from the center of the body out, and never from the limbs alone. Before any powerful, rapid muscle contractions can occur in the limbs, the spine must be solid and stable and the more stable the core, the most powerful the extremities can contract.

Training the muscles of the core also corrects postural imbalances that can lead to injuries. Core strengthening exercises are most effective when the torso works as a solid unit and both front and back muscles contract at the same time, multi-joint movements are performed, and stabilization of the spine is monitored. The drills I will describe must be very intense and with a degree of difficulty equal to or greater than one requested in a game. The first step on this work is to learn the proper stance for receiving the ball, shooting, passing, defending, dribbling, speeding up, changing pace and direction, and blocking out.

Methodology

  • The length of the drill must be short (longer practice creates loss of quality). The total length must be no more than 10-15 minutes.
  • The drill, after the activation, in the first part of the practice and/or as preparation for the work with weights (the neuromuscular system is at the top).
  • Use different angles of work and different speeds of muscular contraction (different widths and speeds of movements).
  • Focus on a main movement (use more muscles for balance, with quick corrective feedback).
  • The postural, dynamic control must involve moves on every side, following the criteria of the gradualness and the progression of the workload.

Here is a sample progression that starts with easy exercise, 1, and progresses to the most difficult, 10:

  1. Bi-podalic support.
  2. Mono-podalic support.
  3. Squat.
  4. Lateral lunges.
  5. Mono-podalic squat.
  6. Split jump.
  7. Mono-podalic proprioceptive items.
  8. Bi-podalic proprioceptive table.
  9. Dynamic moves on proprioceptive table.
  10. Combination of exercises on a proprioceptive table with extra weights (elastic bands, heavy balls, dumbbells).

Variables to consider:

  • Types of instability (foam pad, Disc’o’Sit, core balance, Bosu, fit ball).
  • Degree of instability (support, requested speed).
  • Eventual overload.
  • Number of drills.
  • Length of the drills (series and repetitions).
  • Recover.

WHAT WE ASK TO PERFORM AT DIFFERENT AGE LEVELS

Here is a list of what we ask players based on their age:

Under 13
Be able to maintain balance on the basic stance with simple dynamic movements (shifting in all the directions).

Under 15
Be able to maintain functional balance, also after external stimulation. Be able to control the body in dynamic situations (from the run, to the slide, to help and recover, to speed up and come back). Be able to correctly use the artificial overloads in bi-podalic support (dumbbells, elastic bands, heavy balls, cables, etc.). Practice the functional core stability.

Under 17
Have the control of the basic stance in all the situations, even after being pushed by a coach or when overload situations are created with elastic bands. Be able to correctly use the artificial overloads in a mono-podalic support (dumbbells, elastic band, heavy balls, cables, etc.). To have good postural control on jumping exercises. To practice functional core stability.

Under 19
Have the control of the basic stance, also after functional resistances and in a monopodalic support. Be able to correctly use artificial overloads, also on mono-podalic support in different combinations (torsions, pulls and pushes in a unbalanced situation, fit ball, throws, etc.). To individualize the work.

DRILL 1

Aim: Postural body control.
What we ask: Maintain balance in a bipodalic support on unstable items.
Methodology:

  • Length: from 10” to 30”.
  • Series: 3-5.
  • Recover: 30”.

Suggestions: Maintain active dorsal muscles, keep the shoulders and the knees on line with the front of the toes (photo 1).

DRILL 2

Aim: Postural body control while moving
What we ask: While in a bi- and monopodalic support on an unstable item, handle an unbalanced stimulus created by small plastic semi-spheres 30 cm. (1 foot) apart, while stepping laterally to the right and left.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: stepping on 8/10 semispheres.
  • Series: 2-4.
  • Recover: 30”.

Suggestions: Move the feet, stepping on each semi-sphere, and twisting the hips, rotating the pelvis, but not the shoulders.
Progression

  1. Set the semi-spheres on two straight lines 50 cm. (20 inches) apart.
  2. Move forward, alternating the right and left foot.

DRILL 3

Aim: Maintaining postural body control with an external stimulus.
What we ask: Grip an elastic band and pull it toward the body. Variable: alternate the pull, first with one hand, then with the other.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 10-20.
  • Series: 2-3.
  • Recover: 1 minute.

Suggestions: To activate the dorsal muscles and control the elastic band, always maintain proper positioning (photos 2 and 3).

DRILL 4

Aim: Maintain balance.
What we ask: Grip two elastic bands and move the feet in all the directions. These are the movements of help and recover.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 10-20.
  • Series: 2-3.
  • Recover: 1 minute.

Suggestions: to verify the position to get against his own opponent, based on the basket or the ball (photo 4).

DRILL 5

Aim: Maintain balance while executing dynamic movements.
What we ask: Adequate room based on the opponent’s movements.
Methodology:

  • Length: 8”-10”.
  • Series: 2-3.
  • Recover: 30”.

Suggestions: Use the arms and chest following the ball without losing balance (photo 5).

DRILL 6

Aim: Functional power.
What we ask: Draw an imaginary “8” with a heavy ball (2 to 7 kilograms; 4 to 28 lbs), based on the age and skills of the players.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 10-12.
  • Series: 3-5.
  • Recover: 1 minute.

Suggestions: Activate the dorsal and lumbar muscles while maintaining balance (photo 6).

DRILL 7

Aim: Stability and strength.
What we ask: Maintain position while keeping a straight line with the body (photo 7).
Methodology:

  • Length: 20”- 40”.
  • Series: 1-2.
  • Recover: 1 minute.

Suggestions: Keep the head in line with the spine.
Progression

  1. Raise one leg and the opposite arm, maintaining this position for 2” before alternating leg and arm. (photo 8).
  2. On one side, raise the pelvis and keep the alignment (photo 9).
  3. On one side, raise the pelvis and raise one leg, and keep the alignment (photo 10).
  4. On one side raise the pelvis, bend the leg nearest to the floor (photo 11), forming a 90-degree angle between the tight and chest.

DRILL 8

Aim: Develop stability and strength on the back part of the body.
What we ask: While changing the positions on the ball, keep chest and legs aligned (photo 12, 13, 14, and 15).
Methodology:

  • Length: 10”- 20” for each position.
  • Series: 1-2.
  • Recover: 1 minute.

Suggestions: Contract the gluteus muscles and keep the arms raised and aligned.

DRILL 9

Aim: Develop stability, strength, and activation of the muscular patterns.
What we ask: From the starting position (photo 16), raise dumbbells upward (photo 17).
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 6-10.
  • Series: 3-4.
  • Recover: 2 minutes.

Suggestions: Stabilize the abdominal and lumbar regions.

  1. Alternate the stretch of the arms (photo 18).
  2. Work in a mono-podalic support (photo 19).

DRILL 10

Aim: Develop strength and activate the muscles of the back.
What we ask: Grip the dumbbells; bend forward from the chest (photo 20). Bring the dumbbell to the chest (photo 21).
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 6 for every side.
  • Series: 2 for every side.
  • Recover: 2 minutes.

Suggestions: Stabilize the leg that is supported, and keep the other leg aligned with the bust.

DRILL 11

Aim: Develop strength and activate muscles in specific patterns.
What we ask: Bend and extend the legs while maintaining proper posture (photo 22 and 23).
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 6-8.
  • Series: 3-4.
  • Recover: 2-3 minutes.

Suggestions: Activate the lumbar zone and feel the load evenly distributed on both legs.

DRILL 12

Aim: Develop strength.
What we ask: “Rotations.” Photo 24 is the starting position and ends with photo 25.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 4-6.
  • Series: 3-4.
  • Recover: 2-3 minutes.

Suggestions: Be explosive but maintain posture.

DRILL 13

Aim: Develop the reactive strength in specific muscular patterns.
What we ask: Maintain the proper defensive position.
Methodology:

  • Repetitions: 6-8.
  • Series: 3-4.
  • Recover: 2 minutes.

Suggestions: Draw an “X” on the floor, rotate the hips, not the shoulders (photo 26 and 27).

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