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01 Мая 2004 Журнал "FIBA Assist Magazine"

Виды спорта: Баскетбол

Рубрики: Профессиональный спорт, Спортивные технологии

Автор: Vitale Aldo

Basketball Tests: Only The Best Survive

Basketball Tests: Only The Best Survive

Basketball Tests: Only The Best Survive

You can’t play the game without a basketball, but how does a new basketball actually receive FIBA approval? This is a simple question that has a more complex, scientific answer than you might expect.

The FIBA Basketball Approval Program has been established between FIBA and TUV, one of the world’s leading test institutes, which appraises, tests, and certifies technical equipment and products according to international quality standards.

TUV Rheinland Group in Cologne, Germany, has been in operation for more than 130 years and has over 8,000employees in more than 40 countries. TUV works closely with FIBA on the basketball approval program, which consists of a series of very precise technical tests. The ultimate goal of the program is to ensure that all basketballs bearing the FIBA logo are products of the highest quality.

“The testing program for basketballs is valid for two sizes-size 6 and size 7-and two different categories designated by the colors black and green”, said Mr. Volker Kron of TUV. “The surface material must be free of heavy metals and AZO colors, toxic materials, and materials that can cause an allergic reaction. Also, in a heat storage test of seven days at 70 degrees Celsius, there must be no defect or noticeable exterior change allowed. The valve has to show no leakage when inserted with the inflating needle 100 times before and after heat storage.”

This is just the beginning of the rigorous TUV basketballs tests. In order to receive FIBA approval, basketballs have to undergo the following tests.

REBOUND HEIGHT AND REFLECTION OF THE BASKETBALL

The internal pressure of the balls will be increased until the rebound height from a drop height of 1800 mm is at least 1300 mm/-100mm (reference pressure). The test is performed on a plane surface with a mass of more than one ton. The rebound height has to be measured with appropriate testing equipment and has to be registered.

BALL GEOMETRY

Circumference and geometrical accuracy of all testing samples are measured at reference pressure. Circumference shall not be less than 749 mm and not more than 780 mm.

WEIGHT OF THE BASKETBALL

The mass of the ball that is ready for play will be determined in all test samples. It must be between 567 g and 650 g.

FATIGUE STRENGTH

The test is performed with one ball and a ball-shooting machine. At the beginning of the fatigue test, the ball has to be inflated to reference pressure. It must not be reinflated either during or after the fatigue test. The ball that is used for the test will be bounced 20,0000 times. The energy of each bounce must correspond to a free fall from height of 1800 mm. A leak test has to be carried out before and after the fatigue test.

SURFACE MATERIAL REQUIREMENT

The surface of the basketball shall be free of toxic materials and materials which may cause an allergic reaction. The manufacturer must provide a list of the materials used in the manufacture of the balls and the colors. This requirement has to be met for both Category 1 and Category 2 basketballs.

HEAT-STORAGE TEST

This test is only performed on Category 1 basketballs applying for the FIBA- license in “black.” Two balls at reference pressure will be stored for seven days at a temperature of 70 degrees Celsius. Afterwards there must be no noticeable exterior change, defect of the valve, or seams. The ball geometry will also be measured again at reference pressure.

VALVE TEST (LEAK TEST)

Before and after the heat-storage test, a dry needle for inflating will be inserted into the valve 100 times. After this procedure, leakage should not occur.

PRACTICE TEST (GRIP REQUIREMENT)

The basketball surface shall provide a proper grip over the entire ball (pole of the ball, brand name, and all other areas). The grip shall be tested with the test apparatus with five test persons in the following manner: Place the ball in different positions on the test person’s palm. The hand of the test person shall be supported by a table. Pull the fixed ball, loaded with 50N at a constant speed of 80-100 millimeters, in a finger direction from the hand and measure the force. The test must be performed three times on three different positions of the ball.

Calculate the average value. Proceed in the same manner with each test person. Calculate the average friction factor based on the average values of the five test subjects. The final friction factor must be a minimum of 04.

There are two categories of basketball approval:

CATEGORY 1

This basketball may be used in official FIBA competitions. Only leather or synthetic leather size 7 basketballs can receive the FIBA license in this category. Manufacturers will be authorized to use the FIBA logo in black on the basketballs when approved.

CATEGORY 2

These basketballs are not for use in official FIBA competitions, but can be used in continental and youth competitions. Only rubber size 7 basketballs can receive the FIBA license in this category and manufacturers will be authorized to use the FIBA logo in green on the basketballs when approved.

FIBA’s Basketball Approval Program covers a four-year period (January 2003 – December 2006). All basketballs used in official competitions must have passed the tests within the Approval Program and have obtained the right to bear the FIBA logo.

For 25 years, Molten has been a dedicated global sponsor of FIBA. Their basketball is the Official Game Ball that will be used exclusively during the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. FIBA and Molten continue to work together regularly for the ongoing development and advancement of basketball technology.

Any basketball manufacturer that is interested in FIBA’s equipment approval programs can find the entire detailed procedure-including all fees involved-by going to the FIBA web site at www.fiba.com and clicking the Equipment icon. This section also contains the entire list of FIBA-approved basketballs.

Помимо статей, в нашей спортивной библиотеке вы можете найти много других полезных материалов: спортивную периодику (газеты и журналы), книги о спорте, биографию интересующего вас спортсмена или тренера, словарь спортивных терминов, а также многое другое.

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