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01 Ноября 2003 Журнал "FIBA Assist Magazine"

Виды спорта: Баскетбол

Рубрики: Профессиональный спорт

Автор: Mildenhall Bill

Australian Officiating Education System

Australian Officiating Education System

Australian Officiating Education System

Bill Mildenhall, an Australian FIBA referee, has been working for the Australian Basketball Federation as the National Referees Manager since 1991. He is responsible for the education, training, and resource production for Australian officials at all levels, from the novice to the elite. Mildenhall, who has had a FIBA license since 1978, has officiated at two Olympic Games and five FIBA World Championships.

Attached is an easy-to-read primer of the Australian Education System for basketball referees. The matrix was designed to provide all the core information necessary to implement a thorough education system inline with the current educational trends of Competency Based Training.

The principles of delivery and presentation must be the focus of each presenter in a competency based training system.

Delivery is the vehicle by which skills, knowledge and their actual application are conveyed in a way that ensures the learners acquire the competencies specified as essential in officiating. Delivery methods will aim to

  1. Achieve the prescribed competency standards.
  2. Meet individual learner’s requirements.
  3. Be flexible.
  4. Use materials and techniques relevant to current officiating practices.

This Competency Based Training Program aims to include four key elements

  1. Course Administration.
  2. Competency Statements.
  3. Course Syllabus.
  4. Officiating Practice.

Obviously, the Australian system has its own idiosyncrasies that are specific to this country. However, the basic principles are the same the world over. As educators we need to provide the necessary education and training in such a format that is practical, efficient and most importantly successful. This system of education in Australia has achieved these aims over time. It continually requires updating and fine-tuning. It is a working model that needs to utilize the continually developing technology that makes the learning process more interesting and more effective. This manual aims to simplify the procedures required to educate and train both new officials and current officials while conforming to the accreditation requirements of the Australian Sports Commission.

REFEREE EDUCATION COURSE MANUAL

A. GENERAL

1. Course Name

  • Level 0
  • Level 1
  • Level 2
  • Level 3
  • Level 4
  • Level 5

2. Course Sections

The Course has three sections:

  • Technical Knowledge
  • Officiating Mechanics
  • On Court Assessment (must be satisfied as described below).

3. Course Awards

A.

Upon the successful completion of all three components a candidate will be a:

  • Level 0 (Local Association Badge)
  • Level 1
  • Level 2
  • Level 3
  • Level 4 (Level 3 referee with a National Badge)
  • Level 5 (Level 4 referee with a National Badge and FIBA license)

B.

  1. State can conduct an approved junior program within Level 0.
  2. Can be graded within levels C, B, and A at the discretion of State.

4. Course Design

  • Level 0: Designed for new/junior officials to start refereeing.
  • Level 1: Designed for officials who will referee in junior events, minor State events, and local, domestic events.
  • Level 2: Designed for officials who will referee in State, local elite domestic events, and nominated national events.
  • Level 3: Designed for officials who will referee in national events, and elite State events.
  • Level 4: Designed for officials who will referee in elite national events.
  • Level 5: Designed for officials who are required to hold an international grading and who could be invited by FIBA to attend a FIBA event.

Level 0 is designed for officials, who will referee low grade domestic and/or junior events. All Level 4 and 5 officials will need to satisfy Level 3 requirements, and all Level 5 officials will need to satisfy Level 4 requirements.

5. Course Provider

  • Level 0: Local Basketball Association, acting for State Body.
  • Level 1: State Referees Body.
  • Level 2: State Referees Body.
  • Level 3: Australian Referees Body.
  • Level 4: Australian Referees Body.
  • Level 5: FIBA

6. Course Presentation

A.
Court Presenters Approval: For the Levels 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 the Course Presenters must be approved by the course provider, while at the Level 5 the Course Presenters are approved by FIBA.

B.
Fees: For Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 minimum fees for course presenters will be as prescribed by State or delegated authority; for Level 3 as prescribed by the Australian Body, and, for Level 5 fees will be determined by FIBA.

C.
Presenter/Facilitator: From Levels 0 to 2, he must be an appropriately qualified educator/evaluator, approved by the State or delegated authority. For the Level 3 he must be approved by Australian Body, and at Level 5 accredited by FIBA.

D.
The recommended ratio of candidates to presenter for mechanics demonstration is:

  • Level 0: 1 to 20.
  • Level 1: 1 to 8.
  • Level 2: 1 to 4 in a four hour period.
  • Level 3: Same as above.

E.
For on court assessment need is:

  • Level 0: A half game by 1 evaluator/observer.
  • Level 1: A minimum of three games by 1 evaluator.
  • Level 2: A minimum of five games by a minimum of 2 evaluators over different games.
  • Level 3: A minimum of five games by 3 evaluators.

For Level 1 the number of games for on court assessment may be reduced to 1 game for C grade, and 2 games for B grade, when States have used C, B, A grades within Level 1.

For Level 2 two games for on court assessment may be done, while a candidate is completing the theory modules.

For level 3 games for on court assessment should be referred with different partners, some at a similar level to candidate, and others superior.

F.
From Level 0 to 3 theory component will be conducted in a “Classroom” environment with the following aids available:

  • Whiteboard
  • OHPP Power point
  • TV/VCR
  • Basketball

G.

  • Level 0: Practice on basketball court.
  • Level 1, 2 and 3: Practical demonstrations will be on basketball court.

H.

  • Level 0: Course Notes, Simplified Rulebook, Video “Basic Basketball Officiating” and/or selected videos.
  • Level 1: Course Notes, Rulebook, Mechanics Video, selected videos, Official Training Manual.
  • Level 2: Course Notes, Rulebook, Mechanics Book, and Official Training Manual.
  • Level 3: Course Notes, Rulebook, Mechanics Book, Score Table Manual, Officials Training Manual.

I.

  • Level 0: Course to be conducted by local association or delegated authority.
  • Level 1: Course to be conducted by local association or delegated authority by State accredited instructor (Level 1 or above).
  • Level 2: Course to be conducted by State Body or by State accredited instructor (Level 2 or above).
  • Level 3: Course to be conducted by Australian Body or delegated Australian accredited instructor (Level 3), and special instructors in the case of special units.
  • Level 4: No specific course.
  • Level 5: Course to be conducted by FIBA, with FIBA accredited instructor.

B. COURSES

1. Time

  • Level 0: 3 hours, plus practical assessment time.
  • Level 2: 8 hours, plus practical assessment time (at the discretion of the provider, the course can be split in 4 hours for C grade and an additional 4 hours for B grade).
  • Level 2: 16 hours, plus practical assessment time.
  • Level 3: 16 hours, plus practical assessment time (this time can be extended for specialist presenters).
  • Level 4: As determined by Australian Body.
  • Level 5: As determined by FIBA.

2. Components

Level 0:

  • Technical Knowledge: 3 modules in two hours.
  • Officiating Mechanics: 1 module in one hour.

Level 1:

  • Technical Knowledge: 5 modules in one hours.
  • Officiating Mechanics: 1 module in one hour and one practical session in one hour.

Level 2:

  • Technical Knowledge: 8 modules in two hours.
  • Officiating Mechanics: 1 module in one hour, and one practical session in two hours.

Level 3:

  • Technical Knowledge: 10 modules in two hours.
  • Officiating Mechanics: 1 modules in one hour, and one practical session in two hours.

3. Course Entry Requirements

A.

Level 0: No pre requisites.

  • Level 1: Must have refereed a minimum of 5 domestic games, and completed modules 1, 2 and 3 from Level 0.
  • Level 2: Must have been a Level 1 A for more than twelve months or a designated “fast track” candidate identified by State.
  • Level 3: Recommended to have been a Level 2 for more than twenty four months or a designated “fast track” candidate, identified by Australian Body.
  • Level 4: Recommended to have been a Level 3 for a minimum of twenty four months or a candidate with prior learning, identified by Australian Body.
  • Level 5: Recommended to have been a Level 4 for a minimum of twenty four months.

B.

  • Level 1: As a guideline, 15 years is the preferred minimum age.
  • Level 2: Pass entry theory exam (pass requirements for C/B grade will be lower than A grade).
  • Level 3: Pass entry theory exam.
  • Level 4: Potential candidates may undertake special programs.
  • Level 5: Must be nominated by Australian Body.

C.

  • Level 2: Demonstrate superior Level 1 competencies when officiating.
  • Level 3: Demonstrate superior Level 2 competencies when officiating.
  • Level 4: Must be nominated by State or by Australian Body.
  • Level 5: Can be graded by FIBA only.

D.

  • Level 2: Recommended to enter course by State or delegated authority.
  • Level 3: Recommended to enter course by State.
  • Level 4: Can be graded by Australian Body only.
  • Level 5: Invitation to attend course based on Australia’s strategic plan and FIBA policies.

C. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE

1. Course Requirements

A.

  • Level 0, 1, 2, and 3: Complete the stipulated technical knowledge modules.
  • Level 4: No additional technical knowledge modules, but must have current Level 3 modules.
  • Level 5: Attend and pass the FIBA course, but must complete requirement of Level 4.

B.

Level 0:

  • Module 0.1: Basic Game Administration.
  • Module 0.2: Basic Contact.
  • Module 0.3: Violations.
  • Module 0.4: Basic Mechanics.

Level 1:

  • Module 1.1: Game Administration.
  • Module 1.2: Contact.
  • Module 1.3: Violations.
  • Module 1.4: Mechanics.
  • Module 1.5: Technical Infractions.
  • Module 1.6: Timing Regulations.
  • Module 1.7: Fitness Program.

Level 2:

  • Module 2.1: Game Administration.
  • Module 2.2: Contact.
  • Module 2.3: Violations.
  • Module 2.4: Mechanics.
  • Module 2.5: Technical Infractions.
  • Module 2.6: Timing Regulations.
  • Module 2.7: Fitness Program.
  • Module 2.8: Philosophy of Officiating/Self Reflection.
  • Module 2.9: Preventative Officiating-People Management.
  • Module 2.10: Game Trends and Relations.

Level 3:

  • Module 3.1: Game Administration.
  • Module 3.2: Contact.
  • Module 3.3: Violations.
  • Module 3.4: Mechanics.
  • Module 3.5: Technical Infractions.
  • Module 3.6: Timing Regulations.
  • Module 3.7: Fitness Program.
  • Module 3.8: Philosophy of Officiating.
  • Module 3.9: Preventative Officiating-People Management.
  • Module 3.10: Game Trends and Relations.
  • Module 3.11: Officiating Psychology.
  • Module 3.12: Evaluator Course.

2. Frequency

Level 0:

  • Technical Knowledge accreditation is valid for 12 months only.
  • Must undertake on court assessment at least every 12 months, but referee may be assessed any time and be re-graded.

Level 1, 2, and 3:

  • Technical Knowledge accreditation is valid for the life of FIBA rules, up to a maximum of four years; however, after a major rule change it must be renewed in the next 12 months.
  • Must undertake on court assessment at least every 12 months, but referee may be assessed any time and be re-graded.

Level 4:

  • Must maintain Level 3 requirements.
  • Must undertake on court assessment at least every 12 months, but referee may be assessed any time and be re-graded.

Level 5:

  • Accreditation is valid for the life of the FIBA rules, up to maximum of four years; however, after a major rule change it must be renewed within 24 months and maintain Level 4 requirements.
  • Pass FIBA on court assessment, but must also meet the requirements of Level 4.

3. Assessment

A.

  • Level 0: No technical knowledge examination is required.
  • Level 1: Pass approved technical knowledge examinations set by Australian Body.
  • Level 2: Pass approved technical knowledge examinations set by Australian Body. State may direct more frequent examination.
  • Level 3: Pass approved technical knowledge examinations set by Australian Body as required each year.
  • Level 4: Pass approved technical knowledge examinations set by Australian Body as required each year.
  • Level 5: Pass FIBA technical knowledge examination.

B.

Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Satisfactory completion of learning outcomes of modules.


C.

Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Only A and B above are required to complete technical knowledge of section of course.


D.

Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: In addition, further assessment is done as part of on court assessment.


D. OFFICIATING

Mechanics

1. Requirements

  • Level 0: Complete the stipulated demonstration module 0.4 - Basic Mechanics.
  • Level 1: Complete the stipulated demonstration module 1.4 - Mechanics a) Areas of responsibility; b) Signals.
  • Level 2: Complete the stipulated demonstration module 2.4 - Mechanics Areas of Responsibility.
  • Level 3: Complete the stipulated demonstration module 3.4 - a) Mechanics; b) Teamwork.
  • Level 4: No additional practical demonstrations are required, but must have current Level 3 demonstration.
  • Level 5: Exhibits mechanics and officiating techniques as required by FIBA instructor, but must also complete the requirements of Level 4.

2. Fitness/Nutrition

A.

  • Level 0: No requirements to undertake any fitness module.
  • Level 1: Completed fitness education module.
  • Level 2: Satisfies basic fitness requirement conducted by State Body.
  • Level 3: Satisfies basic fitness requirement conducted by Australian Body.
  • Level 4: Satisfies fitness requirement of Level 3, as required during the season.
  • Level 5: Satisfies fitness requirement as prescribed by FIBA, and conducted by FIBA.

B.

  • Level 1: Module 1.7- Fitness Program.
  • Level 2: Module 2.7- Fitness Program a) Physiology; b) Nutrition.
  • Level 3: Module 3.7- Fitness program a) Physiology; b) Nutrition; c) Physical Preparation.

E. ASSESSMENT

1. Assessment

  • Level 0, 1, 2, and 3: Satisfactory completion of learning outcomes of all modules.
  • Level 4: Satisfies Level 3 requirements.
  • Level 5: Pass FIBA mechanic requirements.

2. Evaluator

  • Level 0: The on court assessment will be done by the local association or its delegated authority.
  • Level 1: The on court assessment will be done by the local association or its delegated authority by a grade 1 evaluator.
  • Level 2: The on court assessment will be done by the local association or its delegated authority by a grade 2 evaluator.
  • Level 3: The on court assessment will be done by the local association or its delegated authority by a grade 3 evaluator.
  • Level 4: The on court assessment will be done by the Australian Body.
  • Level 5: The on court assessment will be done by a FIBA instructor.

3. Game Requirements

A.

  • Level 0: The minimum time for the assessment is half a game by one evaluator.
  • Level 1: The minimum time for the assessment is three games by one evaluator (this may be reduced to one game for Level C and two games for Level B).
  • Level 2: The minimum time for assessment is five games by two evaluators.
  • Level 3: The minimum time for assessment is five games by three evaluators.
  • Level 4: The minimum time for assessment is five games by three evaluators.
  • Level 5: The assessment time is determined by FIBA.

B.

  • Level 0: The game standard for assessment is low grade/junior domestic games.
  • Level 1: The game standard for assessment is senior domestic games.
  • Level 2: The game standard for assessment is elite domestic games.
  • Level 3: The game standard for assessment is elite State and national games with varied partners.
  • Level 4: The game standard for assessment is elite national games with varied partners.
  • Level 5: The game standard is as required by FIBA.

C.

  • Level 1: The evaluator will use Bunn Sheets
  • Level 2: The evaluator will use Bunn Sheets and State Body evaluation form.
  • Level 3: The evaluator will use Bunn Sheets and State or Australian evaluation form.
  • Level 4: The evaluator will use Bunn Sheets and Australian evaluation form.

4. Competency Description

A. Game Administration

  • Level 0: Ensures score sheet is correct prior to start of games and completes at the end of game.
  • Level 1: Administers all time-out and substitutions.
  • Level 2: Ensures score’s table is organized, checks equipment and controls warm ups.
  • Level 3: Holds pre - game conference with partner.
  • Level 4: Holds pre-game conference with partner and coaches.

B. Teamwork

  • Level 1: Exchanges information with partner.
  • Level 2: Provides assistance to partner as required.
  • Level 3: Assists partner with support.
  • Level 4: Works with partner as one team.

C. Decisiveness

  • Level 0: Blows whistle for significant events.
  • Level 1: Reacts to situation and makes a call.
  • Level 2: Reacts to situation in a confident manner.
  • Level 3: Reacts to situation in a strong, confident manner.
  • Level 4: Reads the game to enable prompt reaction.

D. Consistency

  • Level 1: Establishes a pattern of call selection that is generally maintained.
  • Level 2, 3, and 4: Establishes a pattern of call selection that is strongly maintained.

E. Movement around Court

  • Level 1: Generally moves around the court in an appropriate manner in accordance with game.
  • Level 2: Less than an average of 10 questionable situations per game, due to poor court position.
  • Level 3: Less than an average of 6 questionable situations per game, due to poor court position.
  • Level 4: Less than an average of 4 questionable situations per game, due to poor court position.

F. Position on Court

  • Level 0: Moves along the sideline.
  • Level 1: Moves along the side/end line in accordance with lead/trail.
  • Level 2: Movement to show understanding of 6 areas, transition and dead ball positions.
  • Level 3 and 4: Movement to demonstrate teamwork and techniques to cover special play situations.

G. People Management

  • Level 1: Makes a call after an inappropriate player/bench reaction.
  • Level 2: Reacts promptly when player/bench behavior is inappropriate.
  • Level 3: Ability to keep game behavior in control. Manage conflict.
  • Level 4: Take appropriate action to be pro active in keeping player/bench behavior in control.

H. Game Control

  • Level 1: Makes a call after a conflict situation to deal with that situation.
  • Level 2: Reacts promptly when a game gets into a conflict situation.
  • Level 3: Able to keep a game in control with appropriate contact situation.
  • Level 4: Pro active role in keeping game control.

I. Verbal Communication

  • Level 0: Communicates call to bench.
  • Level 1: Communicates clearly to players and bench.
  • Level 2: Uses voice for preventative action.
  • Level 3 and 4: Uses voice to resolve conflict.

J. Visual Communication

  • Level 0: Blows whistle and uses foul and out-ofbounds signal.
  • Level 1: Uses signal as required.
  • Level 2, 3, and 4: Uses all signal in the correct sequence in a sharp manner.

K. Rule Knowledge

  • Level 1: Has less than an average of 5 rule errors as a result of technical knowledge based on Level 1 modules.
  • Level 2: Has less than an average of 1.5 rule errors as a result of technical knowledge.
  • Level 3: Has less than an average of 0.5 rule errors as a result of technical knowledge.
  • Level 4: Has less than an average error per game as a result of technical knowledge.

L. Judgement

  • Level 0: Makes calls on basic contacts and out-ofbounds.
  • Level 1: Makes calls on majority of significant contact and violations.
  • Level 2: Has less than an average of 12 questionable judgment situations per game.
  • Level 3: Has less than an average of 8 questionable judgment situations per game.
  • Level 4: Has less than an average of 4 questionable judgment situations per game.

6. On Court Assessment

A.
Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Need to complete the number of games at the required playing standard.

B.
Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Assessment is based on objective and subjective competencies with each candidates required to satisfy the competencies of the given level and those of the lower level(s).

C.
Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Where a number of evaluators are required, the evaluators should consult with regard to go candidate prior to the decision to grade the candidate.

D.
Level 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4: Completion of the on court assessment section occurs when competencies as described have been attained as judged by appropriate evaluator.

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