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29 Декабря 2018 Журнал "Спортивный психолог"

Виды спорта: Общеспортивная тематика

Рубрики: Спортивная наука

Автор: Алёшичева Анна Васильевна, Самойлов Николай Григорьевич

Application of methods of evaluation of quality of life for diagnosis of state of psychological health of athletes

Keywords: psychological health, diagnostic methods, beginners and experienced athletes.

Abstract. The purpose of this work was to identify the possibility of applying methods for assessing the quality of life for diagnosing the psychological health of an athlete's personality. The study involved sportsmen- professionals and beginners. The masters of sports, in comparison with the beginners, revealed higher rates in the physical sphere and lower in the psychological. The conclusion is made about the possibility of using questionnaires for assessing the quality of life as additional methods for diagnosing a person's psychological health.

Ключевые слова: психологическое здоровье, методы диагностики, начинающие и опытные спортсмены.

Аннотация. Целью настоящей работы было выявление возможности применения методов оценки качества жизни для диагностики психологического здоровья личности спортсмена. В исследовании приняли участие спортсмены-профессионалы и начинающие спортсмены. У мастеров спорта, по сравнению с начинающими, выявлены более высокие показатели в физической сфере и более низкие в психологической. Сделан вывод о возможности использования опросников оценки качества жизни как дополнительных методик с целью диагностики психологического здоровья личности.

The relevance of research. Currently, the necessity to study the psychological health of the individual is noted in many publications. An analysis of the literature from a methodological standpoint indicates that there are a limited number of "direct" methods for diagnosing psychological health. So far as it is believed that psychological health is a determinant of the structure of personality and at the same time part of it, in the procedure of its research, tests are often used to diagnose its qualities and properties. For this purpose, a large number of personal questionnaires are used [1, 7, 9]. A number of authors considering the subjective well-being as a correlate of psychosocial or mental health for its diagnosis using the technique developed by K. Riff, projecting the performance of its six main constructs on the level of mental health of the individual [11]. About the state of psychological health can be indirectly judged by the results of methods of diagnosis of emotional burnout (V.V. Boyko or K. Maslach and S. Jackson) and others [6]. Also professional adaptation questionnaires of G.S. Nikiforova et al are used. [4]. In some researches methods of determining the dominant state [3] or emotional discomfort [2] are used for the same purpose. In addition, there are studies in which the authors judge the state of mental health of a person, based on projective research methods [11].

The applying of quality of life questionnaires for the purpose of evaluating psychological health was not used, although there are researches where mental health was determined with their help [12]. In this regard, as well as taking into account the relevance of studying of health, especially among individuals performing their professional activities in difficult, special or extreme conditions (for example, athletes), we undertook this study.

The purpose of the research is to determine the possibility of diagnosing the psychological health of an individual of athletes using methods for assessing the quality of life.

Organization of the research. The research was conducted on the basis of sports schools in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ryazan.

The subjects. In this research, 200 sportsmen took part, who were divided into two groups. The main group (n = 82) is highly qualified sportsmen (masters of sports and international masters of sports); comparison group (n = 118) - these are novice sportsmen who do not have sports categories, but have been involved in sports for at least one year. All sportsmen were engaged in different kinds of sports (speed-strength, cyclical, difficult-coordination, martial arts, sports, extreme sports).

It should be noted that the task of influencing the specificity of the sport on the components of the psychological health of sportsmen was not set. It was important to determine the effect of the duration of sports activities (at least 8 years) on the subject of research, which is associated with the intensity of physical and mental stress applied by professional sportsmen. The age of the subjects - from 18 to 28 years. The subjects were of different sexes, but gender differences in the reactions of athletes in this series of studies were not taken into account.

Research methods. As a measuring tool, questionnaires were used to assess the quality of life of WHO QOL-100 and SF-36. Quantitative data were processed by parametric statistics. The difference in performance between groups was assessed using Student's test. In addition, factor and correlation analyzes were used.

The results of the research. The obtained data due to the application of the WHO methodology QOL-100 are presented in table 1.

The presented data allow to note that on the scale of "physical sphere" among experienced athletes, the indicators are significantly higher than among beginner athletes (t = 2.6; p <0.05).

With the help of the subsphere "physical pain and discomfort", the physical sensations experienced by athletes in our case and the degree to which these sensations are disturbing them, especially in the process of their sports activities, are measured. In this regard, it should be considered that for professional athletes, the presence of pain can not only deteriorate the results of their performances, but what is very important for them is related to material (financial) losses, which, of course, do not worry novice athletes.

Of course, we were most worried about the athletes' ratings on the "psychological sphere" scale. It should be immediately noted that the most negative impact on them was an excess of negative emotions. Although most of the subsphere of this sphere are oriented positively. However, the subjective assessment of their psychological sphere among experienced athletes looks much lower than that of beginners (t = 2.9; p<0.01).

Table 1 - Indicators of the quality of life of beginners and experienced athletes (points, n=200)

Scales

Beginners (n=118)

Experienced athletes (n=82)

Confidence level

t

p

Physical sphere

8,00±0,75

13,33±0,94

2,6

< 0,05

Psychological sphere

16,00±0,81

10,40±1,02

2,9

< 0,01

Level of independence

13,00±1,11

16,00±1,17

3,1

< 0,01

Social relations

14,00±0,99

10,67±0,87

2,7

< 0,05

Environment

12,25±1,02

15,25±1,14

3,0

< 0,01

Spiritual sphere

8,00±0,93

16,00±1,17

3,1

< 0,01

Overall assessment of quality of life

79,25±4,18

73,65±4,50

2,5

< 0,05

Table 2 - Indicators of the quality of life of beginners and experienced athletes (points, n=200)

Scales

Beginners (n=118)

Experienced athletes (n=82)

Confidence level

t

p

Physical function (PF)

26,33±0,78

29,02±0,85

2,3

<0,05

Role-physical functioning (RP)

26,01±0,84

29,11±0,79

3,1

<0,01

Bodily pain (BR)

6,62±0,67

9,55±0,72

3,0

<0,01

General state of health (GH)

16,44±0,52

18,56±0,56

2,8

<0,05

Vitality (VT)

17,32±0,81

15,13±0,73

2,1

<0,05

Social functioning (SF)

8,87±0,76

6,60±0,80

2,1

<0,05

Role emotional functioning (RE)

5,30±0,10

4,87±0,09

3,3

<0,001

Mental health (MH)

24,58±1,76

19,11±1,48

2,4

<0,05

The decrease in the overall assessment of the psychological sphere comes from the fact that high-class athletes, due to mental fatigue, often experience negative feelings (despair, irritation, nervousness, anxiety, depression), which increases their experience and negatively affects psychological health.

On the "independence level" scale, high-class athletes demonstrated their attitude to home, work, and everyday activities: it is much better than their novice colleagues (t = 3.1, p <0.03). However, the indicators on the "social relations" sphere are reversed. This refers to the fact that high-class athletes data on this scale reduced (t = 2.7; p <0.05). This is due to the fact that professional athletes are incomparably more in contact with financial fraud, condemnation, politicization of sports and many other factors than beginners. All these factors are far from "moral cleanliness" and form a "social press" on the personality of professional athletes.

The data on the "environment" scale for experienced athletes is much better than for beginners (t = 3.0; p <0.01). It is determined by the living conditions, material security and financial income of the compared persons. According to the "spiritual sphere" scale, highly qualified athletes demonstrate indicators two times higher than their novice colleagues (t = 3.1; p <0.01). The fact is that the formation of this factor has psychosocial roots. So when asking the question: why, in the presence of mental fatigue, severe rigidity, frustration, depression and other personality traits (which obviously do not improve the well-being and psychological health of experienced athletes), are they able to perform enormous physical activities and endure mental stress? The answer, most often, is given by the athletes themselves or their coaches: everything is determined by the «socio-psychological core», «Russian spirit», and, strictly speaking, by the spiritual and moral principle. Although in the phenomenon itself formed contradictions and exacerbated.

This refers to the selection of specialists (engaged in the study of psychological health) spiritual and moral level of the individual as the most important criterion. The contradiction here is the deterioration of the psychological health of professional athletes with a sufficiently high degree of their spirituality. This is caused by two groups of factors: the irst is the long-term, exhausting physical and especially mental stress and the growing demands of society on them, resulting in a "background" (out of competition) health condition; and the second is a sharp increase in various types of aggressiveness, excitability, emotional coldness, assertiveness, risk appetite, callousness and other properties, which certainly also reduce the level of psychological health. However, due to a sharp increase in the level of their manifestation in competitions, high intensity and action for a short time, they are the ones that determine the dominance over spiritual and moral criteria and other components of their health. That is why negative, from the point of view of public perception, but the qualities that are necessary and mobilizing for victory and winning, are becoming dominant and ensuring that professional athletes perform maximum loads with a significantly reduced level of psychological health. Apparently, the ability of professional athletes to over-mobilize in extreme situations to win developed over the years and is a condition of meaningfulness and a willingness to "put oneself on the block", manifesting in this a high degree of spiritual and moral principles.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the overall assessment of the quality of life, which consists of answers to 100 positively oriented questions, was still lower for athletes with higher qualifications than for beginners (t = 2.5; p <0.05).

As in many, especially foreign studies, the authors argue that quality of life is an indicator of human well-being, and the latter is considered one of the indicators (markers) of psychological health, this questionnaire can obviously be used to measure it. Taking into account the instructions of a number of authors that a high level of mental stress arising among professional athletes leads to chronic stress, injuries, overtraining, which worsen mental health and quality of life [10], we attempted to diagnose psychological health using the MOS SF questionnaire - 36 [8].

The data obtained are presented in table 2.

The obtained data allow us to note that four of eight indicators for experienced athletes are better expressed than for beginners. These are all scales related to the physical component of health. At the same time, the data of the scales included in the general indicators of the psychosocial component of health is lower than in the comparison group (Table 2).

The first four scales allow to test the physical condition, determine its level in the presence of pain, and identify the general health of the subject. The obtained data indicate that the physical condition of experienced athletes, compared with inexperienced, beginners, is at a higher level (t = 2.3; p <0.05). And this means that experienced athletes, despite the presence of years of influence on the psyche of extreme situations of sports activity, significantly worsening their mental and psychological health, are able to endure maximum physical and mental stress in competition conditions. Although the level of physical functioning in them could be much higher if it were possible to exclude the influence of psychopathological factors on their psyche.

The obtained data on the following four scales related to the psychosocial component of health, indicate a decrease in their experienced athletes, compared with beginners. Apparently, it is precisely the negative changes in the psyche of the first that determine the deterioration of their social functioning (t = 2.1, p <0.05), vital activity (t = 2.1, p <0.05) and, especially, role-playing emotional functioning (t = 3,3; p <0,001), which is caused by the frequently occurring and long-term affective emotional state. That is why professional athletes have lower mental health indicators than beginner athletes (t = 2.4; p <0.05). The questions of this scale are constructed so that the answers to them can demonstrate the degree of manifestation of such personality states as depression and anxiety, causing mental fatigue, mental distress and, in general, a decrease in the state of psychological health.

The results of the conducted factor and correlation analyzes make it possible to verify that there are positive connections between the two groups of studied indicators that are included in the physical and socio-psychological spheres.

Thus, the physical sphere has the closest connections with physical functioning (r = 0.211; p<0.002), with role-based physical functioning (r = 0.188; p<0.003) and to a somewhat lesser extent, there is a connection with mental health (r = 0.177; p<0.005).

At the same time, the general health of athletes is much more dependent on the parameters of the psychological sphere (r = 0.190; p<0.004), and the last one is even more closely related to social functioning (r = 0.193; p<0.005), while mental health associated with it to a lesser extent (r = 0.185; p <0.013). As for the spiritual sphere, as one of the most important criteria of psychological health, it has the closest correlation with the social sphere (r = 0.195; p <0.003) and mental health (r = 0.186; p<0.005) of experienced athletes. The overall quality of life has the closest links with social functioning (r = 0.179; p<0.004), mental health (r = 0.177; p<0.011) and with vital activity (r = 0.176; p<0.012).

Consequently, the factors related to the psychological sphere depend on the social sphere, social functioning and vital activity, while the spiritual sphere is also the closest correlated with social functioning and general health. This means that the above-mentioned factors are most relevant to psychological health, and their testing allows us to judge its condition.

Findings:

  1. 1. Due to the complexity of understanding the "psychological health" system and the lack of a generally accepted method of diagnosing it, in world practice questionnaires are used to measure its various structural and functional components, the evaluation of which allows to confirm its changes as an integral system, judging by the transformation of its parts.
  2. 2. Empirical evidence suggests that the use of questionnaires designed to assess the quality of life (WHO QOL-100 and SF-36) is possible with the aim of obtaining additional data for diagnosing the psychological health of an individual.

Literature

  1. Zelenova, M.E. Burnout and stress as factors of psychological health of servicemen / M.E. Zelenova // Psihologicheskoe zdorov'e lichnosti i duhovno-nravstvennye problemy sovremennogo rossijskogo obshchestva. - M.: In-t psihologii RAN, 2014. - P. 208-213.
  2. Kulikov, L.V. Identification and analysis of the causes of emotional discomfort / L.V. Kulikov // Praktikum po psihologii zdorov'ya; pod red. G.S. Nikiforova. - SPb.: Piter, 2005. - P. 76-82.
  3. Kulikov, L.V. Diagnosis of the dominant state / JI.B. Kulikov // Praktikum po psihologii zdorov'ya; pod red. G.S. Nikiforova. - SPb.: Piter, 2005. - P. 44-60.
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  6. Brymer E. The search for freedom in extreme sports: A phenomenological exploration / Brymer E., Schweitzer R. // Psychology of Sport and Exercise. - 2013. - Volume 14, Issue 6, November 2013. - P. 865- 873.
  7. Gouttebarge, V. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers / V. Gouttebarge, M. H. W. Frings-Dresen, J. K. Sluiter // Occupational Medicine. - Apr, 2015. - Vol. 65, Issue 3. - P. 190-196.
  8. Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey [EHlektronnyj resurs]. - Rezhim dostupa: http://www.rand.org/health/surveys_Jools/mos/36-item-short-form.html
  9. Portz, I. Vigorous physical activity, sports participation, and athletic identity: Implications for mental and physical health in college students / Portz, // Journal of Youth Ministry. - 2012. - Vol. 10 Issue 2. - P. 101-104.
  10. Simon, J.E. Current health-related quality of life is lower in former division I collegiate athletes than in non-collegiate athletes / J.E. Simon, C.L. Docherty // Am J. Sports Med. - 2014. - № 42. - P. 423-429.
  11. Stanescu, M. Using Physical Exercises to Improve Mental Health / M. Stanescu, L, Vasile // Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, - September 2014, - Volume 149, № 5. - P. 921-926.
  12. Stiller-Ostrowski J.L, An evaluation of an educational intervention in psychology of injury for athletic training students / Stiller-Ostrowski J.L., Gould D.R., Covassin T. // Journal Athl Train. - 2009. - 44. - P. 482-489.

Литература

  1. Зеленова, М.Е. Выгорание и стресс как факторы психологического здоровья военнослужащих / М.Е. Зеленова // Психологическое здоровье личности и духовно-нравственные проблемы современного российского общества. - М.: Ин-т психологии РАН, 2014. - С. 208-213.
  2. Куликов, Л.В. Выявление и анализ причины эмоционального дискомфорта / Л.В. Куликов // Практикум по психологии здоровья; под ред. Г.С. Никифорова. - СПб.: Питер, 2005. - С. 76-82.
  3. Куликов, Л.В. Диагностика доминирующего состояния / JI.B. Куликов // Практикум по психологии здоровья; под ред. Г.С. Никифорова. - СПб.: Питер, 2005. - С. 44-60.
  4. Никифоров, Г.С. Практикум по психологии здоровья / Г.С. Никифоров. - СПб.: Питер, 2005. - 351 с.
  5. Шмелев, Н. Духовное здоровье человека / Н. Шмелев // Наука в Сибири. - 2003. - № 47-48. - С. 6.
  6. Brymer Е. The search for freedom in extreme sports: A phenomenological exploration / Brymer E., Schweitzer R. // Psychology of Sport and Exercise. - 2013. - Volume 14, Issue 6, November 2013. - P. 865- 873.
  7. Gouttebarge, V. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers / V. Gouttebarge, М. H. W. Frings-Dresen, J. K. Sluiter // Occupational Medicine. - Apr, 2015. - Vol. 65, Issue 3. - P. 190-196.
  8. Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey [Электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа: http://www.rand.org/health/surveys_Jools/mos/36-itemshort-form.html
  9. Portz, I. Vigorous physical activity, sports participation, and athletic identity: Implications for mental and physical health in college students / Portz, // Journal of Youth Ministry. - 2012. - Vol. 10 Issue 2. - P. 101-104.
  10. Simon, J.E. Current health-related quality of life is lower in former division I collegiate athletes than in non-collegiate athletes / J.E. Simon, C.L. Docherty // Am J. Sports Med. - 2014. - № 42. - P. 423-429.
  11. Stanescu, M. Using Physical Exercises to Improve Mental Health / M. Stanescu, L, Vasile // Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, - September 2014, - Volume 149, № 5. - P. 921-926.
  12. Stiller-Ostrowski J.L, An evaluation of an educational intervention in psychology of injury for athletic training students / Stiller-Ostrowski J.L., Gould D.R., Covassin T. // Journal Athl Train. - 2009. - 44. - P. 482-489.

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